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ALERT: Delivered By Airplane: Ebola Now Threatens 21 Million People In Major Metro Ar

Discussion in 'Topical Discussions (In Depth)' started by searcher, Jul 27, 2014.



  1. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  2. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  3. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  4. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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    Re: ALERT: Delivered By Airplane: Ebola Now Threatens 21 Million People In Major Metr

    [h=1]Family and friends of British nurse to be tested for Ebola after she contracts the virus again: Glasgow medic returns to London hospital isolation unit in 'serious condition'[/h]
    • Pauline Cafferkey, 39, flown from Glasgow to Royal Free Hospital by RAF
    • She is in a 'serious condition' in isolation unit she was in ten months ago
    • Ten days ago she met PM's wife at Downing Street reception for heroes
    • Nurse fell ill last year after treating Ebola sufferers in Sierra Leone
    • NHS says she was working until a week ago but patients are not at risk


    Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/art...don-isolation-unit-treated.html#ixzz3oA7Z7nrF
    Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
     
  5. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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    Re: ALERT: Delivered By Airplane: Ebola Now Threatens 21 Million People In Major Metr

    [h=1]Ebola nurse Pauline Cafferkey is CRITICALLY ill as her condition deteriorates, the London isolation unit treating her has revealed[/h]
    • The Royal Free Hospital in London revealed her condition has deteriorated
    • The nurse, 39, from South Lanarkshire, was admitted to an isolation unit
    • She was diagnosed with Ebola last December but discharged in January
    • But last week she felt unwell again and was flown to London for treatment


    Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/art...e-Cafferkey-CRITICALLY-ill.html#ixzz3odGe7Y2V
    Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
     
  6. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  7. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  8. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  9. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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    Re: ALERT: Delivered By Airplane: Ebola Now Threatens 21 Million People In Major Metr

    [h=1]Thousands died needlessly from ebola because the World Health Organisation’s response to the crisis was ‘late, feeble and uncoordinated’, say scientists in damning report[/h]
    • International expert panel led by British scientists says WHO delay played a major part in the epidemic spiralling out of control
    • The report, published in the Lancet medical journal, blames the WHO for not acting quickly enough
    • Finds WHO was aware of the outbreak in December 2013 but did not declare it an international emergency until August 2014
    • Findings concur with independent investigation commissioned by the WHO published in July
    • See more news on the global response to the ebola outbreak


    Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/art...-scientists-damning-report.html#ixzz3sJZtSavB
    Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
     
  10. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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    Re: ALERT: Delivered By Airplane: Ebola Now Threatens 21 Million People In Major Metr

    Ebola Outbreak Shows Major Reforms Needed To Prevent Future Pandemic
    (VOA News)



    https://youtu.be/CXTV5kENcAM

    Published on Nov 23, 2015
    A panel of experts says major reforms of the global health system are needed if the world is to avoid a repeat of the Ebola epidemic that swept across West Africa in 2014 and early 2015. The experts convened by the Harvard Global Health Institute and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine say the slow response cost thousands of lives. Henry Ridgwell has more from London.
    Originally published at - http://www.voanews.com/media/video/eb...
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Dec 26, 2015
  11. Ensoniq

    Ensoniq Midas Member Midas Member Site Supporter ++

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    Malus and searcher like this.
  12. Tbonz

    Tbonz Gold Member Gold Chaser

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    Re: ALERT: Delivered By Airplane: Ebola Now Threatens 21 Million People In Major Metr

    Hey can anyone remember the two stocks that took off like a rocket the last time Ebola was going to kill the world?

    might be worth throwing a couple of dollars on a call option?
     
  13. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  14. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  15. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  16. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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    Sierra Leone releases last four people from Ebola quarantine
    http://news.yahoo.com/sierra-leone-releases-last-four-people-ebola-quarantine-180610076.html

    Ebola, Zika and More: Designing One Test to Catch Them All
    https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2016/02/401606/ebola-zika-and-more-designing-one-test-catch-them-all

    Researchers present inner workings of Ebola vaccine trial
    http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-02/uof-rpi021116.php

    Effects Of Ebola Linger As Budget Cutbacks Threaten Unrest In Liberia
    http://www.forbes.com/sites/riskmap...acks-threaten-unrest-in-liberia/#3f60cbb07ae3

    Post-Ebola, U.S. soldiers still working to build Liberian armed forces
    http://www.armytimes.com/story/mili...working-build-liberian-armed-forces/80297844/
     
  17. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  18. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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  19. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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    abeland1 and 917601 like this.
  20. the_shootist

    the_shootist The war is here on our doorstep! Midas Member Site Supporter ++

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  21. Ragnarok

    Ragnarok I'd rather be Midas Member

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    That shyt ain't funny.

    R.
     
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  22. the_shootist

    the_shootist The war is here on our doorstep! Midas Member Site Supporter ++

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    Look, it's just more scary 'news' to keep us on our toes. It's their next big push for justifying some vaccine that they say will help protect us from infection from this strain, or some such crap.

    It's a smoke show, a dog and pony show and we're the animals performing for the masters.
     
  23. michael59

    michael59 heads up-butts down Site Supporter ++ Platinum Bling

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    ebola

    I was watching a u toober thing this morn about "Watson" and such with all the rna and splicing and ya all need to see that shit because it ain't what ya all think. yes some of it is, and yes they are doing it. But as I was dozzing in and out I awoke to one guy telling about a lab here in the states that the guy was using the ebola virus to splice rna into. And, yes it was an open lab.

    So ebola has been on these shores for a very long time...since the '80's i think. Anywhoo, the guy who got monsanto into it actually had to kind of drag them into it and then it went from there when they could see how they could make a profit.

    But the thing of it was is that these crazy doctors er what ever they were/are. They had no protocals but one dimwhit decided to call a conference. So all these egg heads get together for three days. Blaw, blaw blaw and then the lawyers they invited were the last ones to get up and talk and the lying lawyers gave them boneheads a Melvin...and that my friends is why we have P4 clean rooms now. You might know them as the wash before you go in and wash when you come out rooms.
     
  24. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    On 9 May 2017, WHO was informed of a cluster of undiagnosed illness
    and deaths including hemorrhagic symptoms in Likati Health Zone, Bas
    Uele Province in the north of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    (DRC), bordering Central African Republic. Since [Sat 22 Apr 2017], 9
    cases including 3 deaths have been reported. Six cases are currently
    hospitalized.

    On [Thu 11 May 2017], the Ministry of Health (MoH) of DRC informed WHO
    that of the 5 samples collected from suspected cases, 1 tested
    positive by RT-PCR for Ebola virus subtype Zaire at the Institut
    National de Recherche Biom?dicale (INRB) in Kinshasa. Additional
    specimens are currently being tested and results, including
    sequencing, are awaited to describe the outbreak.

    On [Wed 10 May 2017], a multidisciplinary team led by the MoH and
    supported by WHO and partners was deployed to the field and are
    expected to reach the affected area on 12 or 13 May 2017 to conduct an
    in depth field investigation.

    The investigation is currently ongoing and information is available
    for only 3 of the suspected cases: The 1st case (and possibly the
    index case), a 39-year-old male presented onset of symptoms on [Sat 22
    Apr 2017] and deceased on arrival at the health facility. He presented
    with hematuria, epistaxis, bloody diarrhea, and hematemesis. Two
    contacts of this case are being investigated: a person who took care
    of him during transport to the health care facility (he has since
    developed similar symptoms) and a moto-taxi driver (deceased) who
    transported the patient to the health care facility.

    Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for health care workers has been
    shipped on [Fri 12 May 2017] to Kisangani. Additional kits are
    currently being prepared and will be shipped as soon as available. [It
    would be good for countries with records of Ebola outbreaks to
    maintain suplies of PPE if at all possible, so health care workers do
    not need to wait for shipments to arrive. - Mod.LK]
     
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  25. Area51

    Area51 Silver Miner Seeker

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    Amazing how the hand-wringers and Chicken Littles go into panic mode.

    A few people die of Ebola and suddenly it's a global catastrophe.

    Scriptwriters are going to have a tough time selling this one.
     
  26. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    ] DR Congo: suspected cases increase to 29
    Date: Thu 18 May 2017
    Source: New York Times [edited]
    <http://nyti.ms/2q28asJ>


    The number of suspected cases of Ebola has risen to 29 from 9 in less
    than a week in an isolated part of Democratic Republic of Congo, where
    3 people have died from the disease since [22 Apr 2017], the World
    Health Organization said on [Thu 18 May 2017].

    The WHO was criticized for responding too slowly to an outbreak in
    West Africa in 2014 that left more than 11 000 people dead, and Dr.
    Peter Salama, the executive director of the organization's health
    emergencies program, said at a briefing that it was essential to
    "never, ever underestimate Ebola" and to "make sure we have a
    no-regrets approach to this outbreak".

    The risk from the outbreak is "high at the national level," the WHO
    said, because the disease was so severe and was spreading in a remote
    area in northeastern Congo with "suboptimal surveillance" and limited
    access to health care. "Risk at the regional level is moderate due to
    the proximity of international borders and the recent influx of
    refugees from Central African Republic," the organization said, but it
    nonetheless described the global risk as low because the area is so
    remote.

    About a week ago, in addition to the 9 suspected cases, 125 patients
    who had come into close contact with the disease were being monitored.
    Now about 400 patients are being followed, even as 9 new cases were
    reported on [Thu 18 May 2017], according to the WHO.

    The Ebola virus causes fever, bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea, and it
    spreads easily by contact with bodily fluids. The death rate is high,
    often surpassing 50 percent, particularly with the Zaire strain, which
    has been confirmed in 2 cases in this outbreak.

    The outbreak was reported in a densely forested part of Bas-Uele
    Province, near the border with the Central African Republic. Cases
    have occurred in 4 separate parts of a region called the Likati health
    zone. Aid groups and the WHO have struggled to reach the affected
    area, which has no paved roads and can be reached only by a motorcycle
    ride through the forest, or by helicopter or light aircraft.

    The first known case occurred on [22 Apr 2017], when a 39-year-old man
    who had fever, vomiting, diarrhea and bleeding died on the way to a
    hospital in the Likati zone. The person caring for him and a
    motorcyclist who transported him also died.

    The first 6 months of the response to the outbreak are expected to
    cost the WHO and aid groups USD 10 million, Dr. Salama said at the
    briefing. He said telecommunications networks would have to be
    established and airstrips repaired so that aid workers can provide the
    necessary medical care.

    The WHO, aid groups and the Congolese government are discussing the
    possibility of using an experimental Ebola vaccine, made by the
    American pharmaceutical company Merck that proved effective in Guinea.
    The response would involve a "ring vaccination," in which contacts of
    patients, contacts of contacts, and health workers would be
    vaccinated. There would be no mass public vaccination. The vaccine has
    not yet been licensed, and its use would require permission on several
    fronts. Nonetheless, Dr. Salama said that if permission were granted,
    the vaccine could be made available in a week or so. Other
    experimental antiviral drugs may also be considered.

    The Ebola virus is considered endemic in the Democratic Republic of
    Congo, where 8 outbreaks, the largest involving about 300 patients,
    have been recorded since 1976.

    Inside Hospital's Ebola Battle
    ------------------------------
    The country "has considerable experience and capacity in confronting
    these outbreaks," Dr. Daniel Bausch, an Ebola expert at the WHO, said
    in an email. He added, "I think there is a very good probability that
    control can be rapidly achieved."

    Dr. Salama said that aid workers had reached a town in the Likati
    zone, which was as close as they had been able to come to the
    epicenter of the outbreak. He said aid groups were setting up centers
    for treatment and isolation, and mobile labs.

    The first aid group to arrive was the Alliance for International
    Medical Action, which was already in the region, responding to
    cholera. In a telephone interview from Conakry, Guinea, the group's
    executive director, Matthew Cleary, said that 7 people who were
    believed to have contracted Ebola had been taken to a district
    hospital in the Likati zone that was not equipped to deal with the
    virus. "It's urgent to get them into a proper isolation center," Mr.
    Cleary said, adding that the group is preparing to build a treatment
    unit. It will include windows that allow families to see patients, a
    response to past outbreaks in which people feared and sometimes
    shunned sealed-up isolation units into which patients seemed to
    disappear.

    Brienne Prusak, a spokeswoman for Doctors Without Borders said on [Wed
    17 May 2017] that the group had sent a team of about 20 doctors,
    nurses and other experts to the Likati zone, and that it was still
    trying to figure out how to reach the epicenter. "Transport is
    extremely difficult in the area, and helicopter flights may be the
    only way to get there," she said by email. "We considered motorbikes
    but are now thinking of helicopters because we need to get so many
    materials there. We're expecting to get to the epicenter by the
    weekend."

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States is
    also sending a renowned Ebola expert, Dr. Pierre Rollin, to Congo,
    along with epidemiologists, a spokeswoman said.

    [Byline: Denise Grady]

    --
    Communicated by:
    ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall
     
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  27. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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    Ebola Spreading: Infections Up 800% In Last Week: Officials Race To Track Down 400 Possible Contacts

    Mac Slavo
    May 19th, 2017
    SHTFplan.com

    [​IMG]

    Last week three suspected Ebola infections were detected in a remote region of the Congo. Since then, World Health Organization officials have been scrambling to contain the virus.

    Their efforts appear to have failed.

    The contagion continues to spread, and though it’s nowhere near the 11,000 people who were infected during the outbreak in 2014, the infection rate has spiked over 800% in just the last seven days, with at least nine new cases reported in the last 24 hours:

    The number of suspected cases of Ebola has risen to 29 from nine in less than a week in an isolated part of Democratic Republic of Congo, where three people have died from the disease since April 22, the World Health Organization said on Thursday.



    The risk from the outbreak is “high at the national level,” the W.H.O. said, because the disease was so severe and was spreading in a remote area in northeastern Congo with “suboptimal surveillance” and limited access to health care.

    “Risk at the regional level is moderate due to the proximity of international borders and the recent influx of refugees from Central African Republic,” the organization said, but it nonetheless described the global risk as low because the area is so remote. (NY Times)

    The 2014 outbreak likewise started in a remote region of Africa, but containment efforts were ineffective and the virus eventually spread to the United States and Europe.

    ***

    According to W.H.O., about 400 people have come into contact with the 29 people infected and officials are attempting to track them down for monitoring.

    Protective gear has been dispatched to health workers and a mobile lab is being constructed and then deployed to the area. Immediate repairs to air strips and telecommunications are also being carried out. The first six months of the operation are expected to cost $10 million…



    With the help of the UN, the first search teams, led by the DRC’s Ministry of Health, flew into Likati yesterday. Their immediate priority is to follow the 400 plus contacts of the suspected Ebola cases. (U.N. News Centre)

    As we learned in 2014, all it takes is one infected individual to make it through an airport checkpoint.

    With international travel via airports, trains and cars available throughout the region, a single infected individual on an airplane could infect scores of others, who in turn could infect scores more.

    The following Ebola model from Yaneer Bar-Yam, who has successfully simulated and predicted such events as the rise of the Arab Spring, shows how an Ebola contagion may look.



    The above model is based on Ebola’s current infection rates and doesn’t take into account its possible evolution as it spreads from human-to-human.

    According to scientists, the 2014 strain began hyper evolving, to the point that had it not been contained and continued to spread through human contact, it could have gone airborne, making it as easy to catch as a common cold.

    In response to this unprecedented threat, US government officials began preparing for mass casualties, reportedly going so far as to develop plans for Community Care Centers where infected individuals, or those suspected of infections, would be detained indefinitely.

    As the Ebola contagion spread across the globe, the panicked populace rushed to stockpile emergency supplies like freeze dried foods, bio-protective body suits and gas masks.

    The concern, of course, was that a virus with a 90% fatality rate after infection would make its way to local American communities. As Tess Pennington notes in her Pandemic Preparedness Guide, once it’s within 50 miles of where you live, it’s time to worry and take immediate steps to isolate your family from the threat, because most people won’t realize how serious of a situation they are in:

    Looking back at the Black Plague, those living in high populated areas were hit hardest by this pandemic. The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30–60 percent of Europe’s population. Given our vast array of transportation systems, modern society causes infectious disease to spread far more rapidly compared to any other time in recorded history; and because pandemics are fast moving, vaccinations would be useless. Further, in regards to the world’s transportation system, the morbidity rate in a future pandemic could result in millions seeking medical care at the same time thus overwhelming hospitals and emergency departments.



    When an outbreak occurs, many will remain in a state of denial about any approaching epidemics. Simply put, most people believe themselves to be invincible to negative situations and do not like the idea change of any kind. They will remain in this state until they realize they are unable to deny it to themselves any longer. Being prepared before the mass come out of their daze will ensure that you are better prepared before the hoards run to the store to stock up.

    Perhaps containment procedures being implemented in the Congo by W.H.O. will be more effective this time around than they were in 2014.

    But what if they’re not? What if the virus mutates and goes airborne?

    Plan accordingly.

    Related:

    The Prepper’s Blueprint: A Step-By-Step Guide To Prepare For Any Disaster

    Bio, Chem, Nuke – Full Body Suit

    Advanced Tactical Gas Masks

    Pandemic Preparedness Guide

    Click here to subscribe: Join over one million monthly readers and receive breaking news, strategies, ideas and commentary.

    Please Spread The Word And Share This Post

    http://www.shtfplan.com/headline-ne...-to-track-down-400-possible-contacts_05192017
     
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  28. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    In the face of the West Africa Ebola crisis, U.S and Canadian government laboratories and a number of companies in Europe raced to test experimental vaccines.
    A year and a half after that outbreak was declared over, the world has two licensed Ebola vaccines: One was made by scientists in Russia, the other by scientists in China.
    And what of the vaccines devised in the U.S., Canada, and Europe? They are still meandering through the developmental pipeline.
    It now looks like it may be 2019 at the earliest before an Ebola vaccine could be licensed by the Food and Drug Administration — nearly four years after a landmark trial showed that one of the candidates, Merck’s V920 vaccine, works. It is the only Ebola vaccine ever to have completed a crucial Phase 3 trial.
    Related Story: Merck will miss long-promised target for filing Ebola vaccine license with FDA
    The slow pace of the process underlines just how long, complicated, and expensive vaccine development and licensure can be in the United States. In the case of Ebola, researchers had started working on vaccines years before the crisis in West Africa, in some cases more than a decade earlier.
    Those efforts accelerated after the Ebola crisis, but since then, a sense of urgency over vaccine development has also dissipated.
    Differences in the development and regulatory systems of the West and Russia and China may also have contributed to the speed with which those two countries were able to develop and license Ebola vaccines.
    In the West, early research on vaccines is often conducted in government-funded laboratories. But at a point, the work needs a commercial partner — typically a major pharmaceutical company with the financial resources to fund the expensive trials licensure requires.
    If there is little or no prospect of profits — and there is no traditional market for an Ebola vaccine — finding a partner can be tough. (Consider Sanofi Pasteur’s decision earlier this year to pull out of Zika vaccine work.) Most of the experimental Ebola vaccines designed in the West languished for years because of a lack of interest on the part of most of the pharmaceutical industry.
    That work likely provided a foundation for the Russian and Chinese vaccines. Both reportedly use a human virus that causes colds to deliver a non-infectious piece of an Ebola virus to activate an immune response. Most of the Western vaccines use a similar approach, though they employ different viruses as the delivery system.
    Relatively little is known about the Russian vaccine; it is still being tested in Guinea, where the 2014 outbreak began. A human study showed it was safe and triggered an immune response, though the trial was too small to prove it was protective. It isn’t clear what other data the Russian drug regulator used to approve the vaccine.
    China’s regulatory agency recently approved an Ebola vaccine developed by the Chinese Academy of Military Medical Sciences’ Bioengineering Institute and Tianjin CanSino Biologics, though at this point its license restricts it to emergency use only.
    Meantime, in the West, Merck and its main competitor, Janssen Vaccines — a division of pharmaceutical giant Johnson & Johnson — are working toward full licensure for their vaccines. Merck had long planned to file its application to the FDA by the end of 2017, but the company recently told STAT it would not meet that self-imposed deadline.
    “It is the normal registration process,” Dr. Marie-Paule Kieny, who until last summer led World Health Organization efforts to accelerate development of Ebola vaccines and drugs, said when asked why the work on these Ebola vaccines seems to be moving more slowly.
    In the event of another Ebola outbreak, the world might be able to turn to an emergency supply of vaccine. Merck and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, reached an agreement that established a stockpile of 300,000 doses of the Merck vaccine. (We say might because the Merck vaccine protects against one type of Ebola, the Zaire strain. If there were an epidemic caused by the Ebola Sudan virus, it would not be protective.)
    There was talk of using some of the vaccine to contain an outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo last spring, but in the end, transmission petered out on its own.
    “It’s not like there’s nothing, in the absence of registration there’s no way to use it. That is not the case,” explained Kieny, who is now research director at Inserm, the French equivalent of the National Institutes of Health.
    “There is a way to use it. The framework is there. The logistics. Everything is planned. And therefore the urgency of having this registered is not that high.”
    Merck took on the task of developing the vaccine in the autumn of 2014, when it became apparent that the license-holder, NewLink Genetics, did not have the expertise needed to handle an expedited approval process for what was seen to be a highly promising vaccine. The company, whose main focus is on cancer therapies, had never seen a vaccine through the licensure process.
    That bit of global public service has cost Merck considerably, both in terms of money and opportunity costs. The company will, however, earn an FDA priority review voucher — which can be worth upwards of $100 million — if it completes the task of licensing the vaccine.
    Merck would also be eligible for a second priority review voucher if it developed a combined vaccine to protect against several strains of Ebola and its cousin virus, Marburg. But the company seems ready to bow out of viral hemorrhagic fever vaccine work once this project is done.
    “We understand, of course, that there’s a need and desire for potentially multivalent vaccines or additional vaccines to cover other types. And there are other developers who are really working on that. And we are very happy that they are working on that,” said Beth-Ann Coller, team leader on the project. “It’s certainly not our focus …. Ebola Zaire has been our focus.”
    Meanwhile, Janssen Vaccines, which began working on Ebola vaccines in 2002, continues to amass the data it needs to support licensure of two Ebola products. One is a monovalent vaccine, designed to protect against a single virus, Ebola Zaire. The other, further back in its pipeline, targets two Ebola viruses, Zaire and Sudan, as well as the Marburg virus.
    The company is currently conducting a clinical trial of the Ebola Zaire vaccine in children in Sierra Leone, which will serve as part of its licensure application, Dr. Johan Van Hoof, head of Janssen Vaccines, told STAT. Van Hoof said Janssen will need “some extra years” to put together the data it needs.
    The company is encountering the same problem faced by all of the Ebola vaccine projects launched before the West African outbreak and since that crisis subsided. There is no way to conduct a Phase 3 trial — the large trial that shows whether a vaccine is protective — when Ebola is not spreading.
    The Chinese vaccine was approved without Phase 3 data. Human data showed it was safe to use, but the studies showing the vaccine works were done in animals.
    Van Hoof said Janssen expects to use this approach too — taking advantage of the so-called Animal Rule — when it applies for a license for these vaccines. The company has been in discussions with the FDA and its counterpart, the European Medicines Agency, to determine what they will require as proof the vaccine works.
    Janssen wants to make sure that it can “build a bridge between the immune profile” it sees in vaccinated monkeys and the one it sees in humans, Van Hoof explained.
    There is a lot of interest in the Janssen vaccine, which is given in two doses. A vaccine that needs two doses isn’t ideal in an outbreak; the Merck vaccine takes just one. But it is thought the two-dose regimen, which primes and then boosts the immune response, will induce more enduring protection.
    A long-lasting Ebola vaccine administered to health care workers in at-risk countries could change the future of Ebola outbreaks. In the early days of an outbreak, before hospitals and clinics have been put on high alert, health workers often become infected and amplify spread.
    Van Hoof also suggested data proving the Janssen vaccine protects people could be generated in future outbreaks, if the vaccine is given an emergency use authorization by the WHO.
    But others aren’t so sure that in an outbreak, an affected country would permit Janssen or any other company with an experimental Ebola vaccine to conduct a trial, given that a vaccine with proven effectiveness already exists. Especially after that product, Merck’s vaccine, is fully licensed.
    “The countries that have an outbreak will say: ‘We are not your playing ground. We want to get rid of this outbreak,’” Kieny said, noting that to even try might be deemed unethical.
    Helen Branswell
    Senior Writer, Global Health
     
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