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Constitution of the United States

Discussion in 'U.S. Constitution & Law' started by Scorpio, Mar 30, 2010.



  1. Scorpio

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    Constitution of the United States


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    We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

    Constitution of the United States : Article I


    Section 1 - Legislative powers; in whom vested

    All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

    Section 2 - House of Representatives, how and by whom chosen Qualifications of a Representative. Representatives and direct taxes, how apportioned. Enumeration. Vacancies to be filled. Power of choosing officers, and of impeachment.
    1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the elector in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

    2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

    3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.(The previous sentence was superseded by Amendment XIV). The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

    4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

    5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

    Section 3 - Senators, how and by whom chosen. How classified. State Executive, when to make temporary appointments, in case, etc. Qualifications of a Senator. President of the Senate, his right to vote. President pro tem., and other officers of the Senate, how chosen. Power to try impeachments. When President is tried, Chief Justice to preside. Sentence.
    1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, (chosen by the Legislature thereof,) (The preceding five words were superseded by Amendment XVII) for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.

    2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. (The words in italics were superseded by Amendment XVII)

    3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

    4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

    5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of the President of the United States.

    6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

    7. Judgement in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgement and punishment, according to law.

    Section 4 - Times, etc., of holding elections, how prescribed. One session in each year.
    1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

    2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,(The words in italics were superseded by Amendment XX) unless they by law appoint a different day.

    Section 5 - Membership, Quorum, Adjournments, Rules, Power to punish or expel. Journal. Time of adjournments, how limited, etc.
    1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

    2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

    3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgement require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

    4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

    Section 6 - Compensation, Privileges, Disqualification in certain cases.
    1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

    2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

    Section 7 - House to originate all revenue bills. Veto. Bill may be passed by two-thirds of each House, notwithstanding, etc. Bill, not returned in ten days to become a law. Provisions as to orders, concurrent resolutions, etc.
    1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

    2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

    3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

    Section 8 - Powers of Congress
    The Congress shall have the power

    1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States:

    2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States:

    3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states,and with the Indian tribes:

    4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States:

    5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures:

    6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States:

    7. To establish post-offices and post-roads:

    8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries:

    9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court:

    10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations:

    11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water:

    12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years:

    13. To provide and maintain a navy:

    14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces:

    15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions:

    16. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress:

    17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings: And,

    18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

    Section 9 - Provision as to migration or importation of certain persons. Habeas Corpus , Bills of attainder, etc. Taxes, how apportioned. No export duty. No commercial preference. Money, how drawn from Treasury, etc. No titular nobility. Officers not to receive presents, etc.
    1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year 1808, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importations, not exceeding 10 dollars for each person.

    2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

    3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

    4. No capitation, or other direct tax shall be laid unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. (Modified by Amendement XVI)

    5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.

    6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

    7. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

    8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no person holding any office or profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

    Section 10 - States prohibited from the exercise of certain powers.
    1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. ]

    2. No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

    3. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in a war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

    Constitution of the United States : Article II


    Section 1- President: his term of office. Electors of President; number and how appointed. Electors to vote on same day. Qualification of President. On whom his duties devolve in case of his removal, death, etc. President's compensation. His oath of office.
    1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

    2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.(The clause in italics was superseded by Amendment XII)

    3. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

    4. No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

    5 . In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. (This clause has been modified by Amendment XX and Amendment XXV)

    6. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

    7. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:


    "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of the President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

    Section 2 - President to be Commander-in-Chief. He may require opinions of cabinet officers, etc., may pardon. Treaty-making power. Nomination of certain officers. When President may fill vacancies.
    1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

    2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

    3. The President shall have the power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next session.

    Section 3 - President shall communicate to Congress. He may convene and adjourn Congress, in case of disagreement, etc. Shall receive ambassadors, execute laws, and commission officers.
    He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he may receive ambassadors, and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

    4 - All civil offices forfeited for certain crimes.
    The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

    Constitution of the United States : Article III


    Section 1- Judicial powers. Tenure. Compensation.
    The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

    Section 2 - Judicial power; to what cases it extends. Original jurisdiction of Supreme Court Appellate. Trial by Jury, etc. Trial, where
    1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and Citizens of another state, between Citizens of different states, between Citizens of the same state, claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign states, Citizens or subjects. (This section modified by Amendment XI)

    2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before-mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

    3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

    Section 3 - Treason defined. Proof of. Punishment of.
    1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

    2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

    Constitution of the United States : Article IV


    Section 1 - Each State to give credit to the public acts, etc. of every other State.
    Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

    Section 2 - Privileges of Citizens of each State. Fugitives from Justice to be delivered up. Persons held to service having escaped, to be delivered up.
    1. The Citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of Citizens in the several states.

    2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

    3. No person held to service or labour in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.(This clause superseded by Amendment XIII)

    Section 3 - Admission of new States. Power of Congress over territory and other property.
    1. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned, as well as of the Congress.

    2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

    Section 4 - Republican form of government guaranteed. Each State to be protected.
    The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union, a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.

    Constitution of the United States : Article V

    Constitution: how amended; proviso.
    The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which , in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress: Provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year 1808, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

    Constitution of the United States : Article VI


    Certain debts, ect. declared valid, Supremacy of Constitution, treaties, and laws of the United States, Oath to support Constitution, by whom taken. No religious test.
    1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution, as under the confederation.

    2. This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

    3. The senators and representatives before-mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

    Constitution of the United States : Article VII

    What ratification shall establish constitution.

    The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

    Constitution of the United States : Bill of Rights

    I - Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and Petition
    Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

    II - Right to keep and bear arms
    A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

    III - Conditions for quarters of soldiers
    No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

    IV - Right of search and seizure regulated
    The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

    V - Provisons concerning prosecution
    No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

    VI - Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc.
    In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

    VII - Right to a trial by jury
    In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

    VIII - Excessive bail, cruel punishment
    Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

    IX - Rule of construction of Constitution
    The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

    X - Rights of the States under Constitution
    The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

    Constitution of the United States :
    Amendments XI - XXVII

    XI - Judicial Powers Construed
    Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.

    The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

    XII - Manner of Choosing a President and Vice-President
    This Amendment altered Article 2 Section 1 Part 2

    Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified July 27, 1804.

    1. The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; - The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.(The words in italics were superseded by Amendment XX)

    3. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such numbers be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

    XIII - Slavery Abolished
    Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865.

    1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

    2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    XIV - Citizen rights not to be abridged
    Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868

    1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

    2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

    3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

    4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

    5. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

    XV - Race no bar to voting rights
    Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.

    1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

    2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    XVI - Income taxes authorized
    Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.

    The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever sources derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

    XVII - U.S. Senators to be elected by direct popular vote
    Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.

    1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures.

    2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of any State may empower the Executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the Legislature may direct.

    3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

    XVIII - Liquor Prohibition
    Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919.

    Altered by Amendment XXI

    1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

    2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

    XIX - Giving nationwide suffrage to women
    Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.

    1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

    2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    XX - Terms of the President and Vice-President
    This Amendment altered Article 1 Section 4 Part 2 and Article 2 Section 1 Part5

    Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933

    1. The terms of the President and the Vice-President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

    2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

    3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice-President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice-President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice-President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice-President shall have qualified.

    4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice-President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

    5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article (October 1933).

    6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

    XXI - Repeal of Amendment XVIII
    Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933.

    1. The Eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

    2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

    3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

    XXII - Limiting presidential terms of office
    Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951.

    1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more that two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more that once.

    2. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

    3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

    XXIII - Presidential vote for the District of Columbia
    Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961.

    1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct:

    2. A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

    3. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    XXIV - Barring poll tax in federal elections
    This Amendment altered Article 1 Section 2 Part 3

    Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23,1964.

    1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or any other tax.

    2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    XXV - Presidential disability and succession
    This Amendment altered Article 2 Section 1 Part 5

    Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967.

    1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

    2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take the office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both houses of Congress

    3. Whenever the President transmits to the President Pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

    4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmits to the President Pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

    5. Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President Pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmits within four days to the President Pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

    XXVI - Lowering the voting age to 18 years
    This Amendment altered Article 1 Section 9 Part 4

    Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified June 30, 1971.

    The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age.

    The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    XXVII - Congressional Pay
    This Amendment altered Article 1 Section 3 Part 1 and Article 1 Section 3 Part 2

    Passed by Congress September 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992.

    No law, varying the compensation for services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
     
    searcher, gringott and Nub like this.
  2. Defenestrator

    Defenestrator Silver Member Silver Miner

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    Since this is the Constitution sub-forum, I recommend making this into a sticky, so it will be easily referenced during any discussions that ensue!
     
  3. Scorpio

    Scorpio Скорпион Founding Member Board Elder Site Mgr Site Supporter ++

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    Thank you for the suggestion, done.
     
  4. ucc207

    ucc207 New Member

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    any researchers out here?

    “The Orphan Constitution”
    PhD dissertation final draft – Doug Herich


    These days I think pretty much everyone realizes that government is broken from the top on down, but no one has figured out that it was George Washington, the reputed Father of his Country, who broke it. The country George Washington fathered wasn’t God’s country; it was the territory and other property that belonged to the United States of America. “His Country” was code for “the Constitution of the United States.” There are two Constitutions: “this Constitution” is the written one, “the Constitution of the United States,” is the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America. Washington took an oath to “preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States,” so that he and future Presidents could administer criminal complaints brought against free people, in the name of the United States of America. This simple truth is easy to prove and that is what this report will evidence beyond any doubt and no one will be able to deny me freedom anymore because the truth has made me free and now the entire world knows it!

    Washington’s false oath enslaved millions of Americans by stretching the government’s land claims to extend beyond what the United States of America owned to include the
    hearts, minds and property of all Americans. This is the story of how he broke the government and bent the law just so he could see central government revived and used to make politicians more prosperous.

    I explain in this report to the people of America exactly how George Washington broke the government. If you have ever been in trouble because someone claimed you violated federal written law, the United States Code, you can blame George Washington. If you know someone now in trouble because of the written law, you must share this report with that person. It is written especially so that any person held captive by the government on the pretext of the violation of written law can take just one or two pages from those that follow and understand the impact George Washington has had on their personal freedom.

    Always remember, the truth shall make you free. This is precisely why this is not written as a book. There are hundreds of thousands of books written about George Washington, the Constitution, government and the law, none of which will make you free. I believe that the truth found in what I have written has the power to make myself and others free. You have my permission to take all or part of this report and share it with anyone who needs to be made free.

    Washington broke the government, so he could become the chief tax collector for the Congress of the United States and, also, so he could jail anyone who refused to consent to be taxed. The broken American government has been falling apart steadily since George Washington first broke it by not telling the truth. As I explain in this report, fixing the government is as easy as getting the President Elect to take an oath “to support this Constitution.” That part of the oath of Office of President of the United States to “preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States,” explains that the “United States” means the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America.

    The secret power of the government was the knowledge that the “United States” meant the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America. Anyone doing anything that was subject to the legislative power of Congress was subject to taxation. The President of the United States was, of course, in charge of the United States. It was subject to his administration, hence, today everything the President of the United States does is his administration. Technically, that administration is limited to the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America, but the President of the United States has his ways of making you consent to his administration.

    Without the two powers of imprisonment and the power to tax, the America of today could not exist. Let’s hope that this revelation will eventually result in freeing all the innocent people held captive in America’s prisons allegedly guilty only of violating written law.

    George Washington broke the government by taking the oath of Office of President of the United States, instead of the oath of office to the Office of President. Washington, the great man, was elected to the Office of President under the Constitution and President of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation. As President, George Washington was supposed to appoint an administrator to the Office of President of the United States, when he appointed himself President of the United States he created a dictator that to this day claims to run the country.

    I know most people will dismiss my discovery as preposterous. They will claim that all three Offices of President are rightly held by the same person elected to the Office of President by the Electoral College. Well, it is true that the Electoral College also selects the President of the United States of America when they pick the person to fill the Office of President, but they do not pick the President of the United States that Office is appointive “by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate.”

    Two out of three might not be bad when picking horse races, but it is disastrous in government, when the wrong two offices are combined. The Constitution combined the President of the United States of America and the Office of President that combination joined the Articles of Confederation and the territory that belonged to the United States of America. Washington took the dictatorial power of the President of the United States over the territory of the United States of America and combined it with the real self defense government power of the United States, in Congress assembled to produce a President that appeared to have police power that extended beyond the territory and property belonging to the United States of America.

    There is no other way to present this story than by constant repetition. Basic legal research should have revealed that the Office of President of the United States is a dictatorship long ago, as that Office has no definite term or qualifications. To Americans, the thought that George Washington was a dictator is totally unacceptable, but the evidence is irrefutable. I present my findings and conclusions to all those who are imprisoned in America because they are constantly seeking relief from long prison sentences. They are more willing to consider alternative explanations of historical facts, if it will assist in their release. The facts that I present here, while related to the central theme of illegitimate Presidential authority, are in no particular order. Facts are presented in a “stream of consciousness” that I hope will raise the consciousness of the reader so a dialogue and an exchange of ideas can begin. It is hoped that this kind of presentation will invite curiosity and further research.

    Constitutional lawyers and scholars won’t admit it, but they are taught the Constitution by constant repetition in the reading of United States Supreme Court opinions. Those opinions are written by Justices appointed by the President of the United States and not by Judges appointed by the President, who is also President of the United States of America. The President of the United States can be defined by legislation as “President,” but such a statute law cannot amend the Constitution to make the President of the United States the President in the Office of President.

    Anyone who learns constitutional law by reading those opinions is getting an interpretation that favors the President of the United States as holder of executive power and Commander in Chief. The "one supreme Court" found in Article III of the Constitution has never been ordained and established by Congress, so it does not exist. Who could appoint the Judges of such a constitutional court? Ever since George Washington took the oath of Office of President of the United States every person elected to the Office of President has taken the same oath and has left the Office of President vacant. The written Constitution in Article II Section 2 identifies the President as having the “Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate”…to appoint “Judges of the supreme Court.”

    The President of the United States and not the President appoints Justices to a Supreme Court created by legislative power derived from the power to administer the territory and property belonging to the United States of America. Could a President of the United States of America appoint Judges to the "one supreme Court?" The President of the United States of America could only do so if he or she had sworn or affirmed the Article VI “to support this Constitution.” Taking that oath “Adopts” the Constitution by the person who holds the Office of President thereby validating judicial appointments to Article III courts, provide the Advice and Consent of the Senate is obtained.

    Practically no one in America knows that the President of the United States has no definite term of office and there are no qualifications to hold that office. The Office of President is not the same as the President of the United States of America, even though the Offices are occupied by the same person. Those Offices would be occupied by the same person, if the President Elect had ever taken the Article VI oath “to support this Constitution.” This information is presented in what may seem to be a very repetitive manner for the purpose of accurately identifying the three Offices of President and to make it easy for the reader to verify the information against the written Constitution or the Internet. Government, media and public education have had more 220 years to fool the public. I only have a few pages to teach you how to read the Constitution as it was really written.

    Washington was elected to the Office of President on February 4, 1789, but he took the oath of Office to the Office of President of the United States on April 30, 1789, the exact date Washington broke the government. Washington had no right to pick himself to be President of the United States, because that self-appointment had to be confirmed by the Senate and it left the Office of President vacant.

    To be fair to Washington, the government was already broken when he took the oath of the Office of President of the United States. Government by king or president was permanently broken in America, when the Americans made good on the Declaration of Independence. Government by the consent of the governed meant that eventually very few would willingly consent to be governed except by trickery or deceit. George Washington’s taking of an oath to be President of the United States instead of the oath of Office of President marked the beginning of government by trick and deception. The written Constitution is the Government’s manual for the institution of trickery and deceit as national policy. The coronation of George Washington was disguised as an inauguration, but the event launched the Presidential trinity of President of the United States, President of the United States of America and Office of President. The substitution of the President of the United States for the Office of President far surpasses any other past act of deceit because it is still undetected. That, of course, will end with the publication of this report.

    The national government cannot be trusted founded as it is on the intentional vacancy of the Office of President and the continual deceit of the President Elect’s self-appointment to the Office of President of the United States. George Washington expected to be discovered at any time, so plausible deniability was written into the Constitution for his protection. Doubters need look no farther than Washington’s second inaugural address for signs of Washington’s misgivings that he might be found out. As you read on, you will find that the Constitutional Convention created for Washington a series of qualifications that he could not meet to be the first holder of the Office of President making it very convenient to take the Office of President of the United States to save the country from chaos. Four years after he failed to qualify to the Office of President, George Washington did qualify to the Office of President. His second term he had to cheat and take the oath of the Office of President of the United States again.

    Fixing the United States Government is as easy as taking the oath of Office of President of the United States that is found at Article II Section 1 Clause 8 and moving it to Article I where it belongs. Moving the oath to where it belongs could be proposed by the Libertarians as an amendment to the Constitution. The problem of bad government lies in getting a President Elect to take the right oath. If the right oath was taken, the Constitution and the United States Government would then make sense. If the oath of the President of the United States appeared after Article I Section 3 Clause 5, it might be confused with an oath of the Vice President of the United States, but it wouldn’t be confused with the oath of the Office of the President.

    The next President Elect must take the Office of President by swearing or affirming, “to support this Constitution,” the correct Article VI oath. The President should then appoint someone sufficiently competent to the Office of President of the United States, so that the approval of two thirds of the Senate could be obtained. The government was broken by George Washington when he appointed himself to be President of the United States and allowed everyone to believe he was President of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation, President under the written Constitution and President of the United States, an Officer of the Congress of the United States. The government can only be fixed by a wide scale admission that every President Elect has been wrong before and the former erroneous tradition will no longer be observed. Now, that is change that can be believed.



    Governments break down when a person who is elected to a public office refuses to vacate that Office. We immediately recognize these people to be dictators. George Washington and the rest of the Constitutional Convention came up with the most sophisticated system of dictatorial government ever conceived by man. I am always privately amazed when I imagine the scene of George Washington taking the oath of Office of President of the United States for the first time and fooling everyone not in the know. Napoleon crowned himself emperor, but that empire didn’t last. Washington appoints himself President of the United States takes that oath of office and that government is just beginning to unravel. Self-appointment to the Office of President of the United States by the President Elect is the act of a dictator. Americans just did it in moderation.

    Why would a good and virtuous man like George Washington want to become a dictator? Washington wanted to pay for the war with Britain and becoming a tax collector was the only way he and Alexander Hamilton thought it could be done. The Declaration of Independence recognized that men were inherently free and the Articles of Confederation constrained the national government’s assertion of power against the people of the states.
    Washington had no faith in the people and the men who had won the war to pay for their own freedom. The American people would pay their debts, but they would do it truthfully, honestly and on their own terms. George Washington wanted to pay it now and he also wanted to help his friends. The Constitutional Convention would be the means by which he would become the Commander in Chief of tax collections for the Congress of the United States.

    The Declaration of Independence left all governments broken except those like the United States of America that provided a mutual self-defense force. Before Washington presided over the secret Constitutional Convention and produced the Constitution, the United States, in Congress assembled, which was the governing body of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation, could only ask the states to pay their proportionate share based upon the value of lands, buildings and improvements within the state.

    The United States of America could not impose taxes directly on the people of the thirteen states. Within a few years after Rhode Island became the thirteenth State to ratify the Constitution western farmers in Pennsylvania were revolting against the imposition of excises on the distillation of alcohol. The United States of America still couldn’t tax the people of the states directly, but the United States could and did. The states of the old Union, the United States of America, became the United States under the new Union. Article I Section 2 Clause 3 provided for Representatives and direct Taxes to be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union. The new Union was to be comprised of territory and other property belonging to the United States of America. The plan of the written Constitution was for the appointive Office of President of the United States to administer the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America and located in the States of the perpetual Union.

    After George Washington broke the government, the President of the United States had regained the former power of a British monarch to imprison those who would not obey the written law of the realm. Technically, the realm was limited to the territory owned outright by the United States of America. Alexander Hamilton was responsible for the excise on alcohol produced in the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America. George Washington raised an army larger than any he commanded during the Revolutionary War to put down the Whiskey Rebellion. The leaders of the Whiskey Rebellion against unlawful excise taxes in Pennsylvania would be tried and convicted of treason for their rebellion against a tax that could not be imposed outside of the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America.

    The new American President, the President of the United States had become a king for four years because that was the term of the President of the United States of America. The White House would become the democratic castle vacated by the old king President upon the arrival of the new king.

    Americans, before the Declaration of Independence, were taxed by the British Parliament using the governing powers of the reigning monarch. Such taxation had caused Americans and the Second Continental Congress to break with Britain and George III, King of England. The Declaration of Independence cited the King for combining “with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation”…[f]or imposing Taxes on us without our Consent.” George Washington did not sign the Declaration of Independence, so he would have no problem breaking an existing and functioning American government and using acts of pretended legislation to impose Hamilton’s taxation without the consent of the persons being taxed.

    Just as soon as the hostilities that had existed between America and Britain prior to July 4, 1776 escalated into full-scale war, the Declaration of Independence became the first of four written Organic Laws of the United States of America. The Constitution of the United States of America and the people of the United States of America was of necessity unwritten as unalienable rights are written on the hearts of men and women by God alone. Work on the second Organic Law, The Articles of Confederation, began within days and by December 16, 1777 Virginia had become the first state to ratify them. By February 1, 1779 Delaware became the twelfth state to ratify the Articles of Confederation. The perpetual Union of the United States of America is finally achieved when the last state, Maryland, ratifies on March 1, 1781.

    Washington presided over the secret Constitutional Convention that began meeting on May 25, 1787 in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation. On September 17, 1787 the Constitutional Convention presented the Constitution to the United States, in Congress assembled, so that later the Constitution would be submitted to the thirteen States for ratification.

    The Constitution was presented to the thirteen states, so that the first nine states might ratify it and establish it “between the States so ratifying the Same,” according to Article VII. Persistent constitutional folklore has the Constitution replace the Articles of Confederation, when the first nine states ratify the Constitution. There is simply no evidence whatsoever that nine states could repeal the perpetual Union created by the Articles of Confederation that were ratified over a forty month period, while a war with Britain was being prosecuted. The nine state ratification was in itself a confirmation that the Articles of Confederation were being revised as nine states were required by the Articles to create, pursuant to Article IX, “A Committee of the States” to sit during the recess of congress. This Committee becomes “a Senate” when the nine states ratify and “the Senate,” when all thirteen states finally ratify the Constitution. The creation of a Senate to replace the delegates to the United States, in Congress assembled is not a repeal of the Articles of Confederation.

    Article II Section 1 of the Constitution formally recognizes an informal office that had been held by the presiding officer to the United States, in Congress assembled from 1781 to the ratification of the Constitution by the ninth State. The first sentence of Article II carries out one of the desired revisions of the Articles of Confederation, the vesting of the executive power in a President of the United States of America. The existing executive power of the president of the Committee of the States found in Article IX of the Articles of Confederation is vested in a President now identified by the confederacy he is to represent in foreign affairs. As no additional executive power is created by the Constitution, no one can claim a three-branch government has been created.

    With “The executive Power” vested in a President of the United States of America, we are left to guess at what would have been the nature of the Office of President whose qualifications are set out in Article II Section 1 Clause 5. It is apparent that the President of the United States of America as holder of the Office of President under the Constitution was to occupy an executive role over the President of the United States. The determination of the nature of the Office is academic as no person elected to the Office of President has ever taken an oath “to support this Constitution.” The written Constitution has never been “Adopted,” as no officer has ever accepted the Constitution as one’s own by affirming or swearing “to support this Constitution.”

    George Washington is to blame for breaking the government by taking the oath and Office of President of the United States instead of the Office of President on April 30, 1789. At the beginning of Washington’s second term, he no longer has the excuses not to take the Article VI oath. He takes the oath of Office of President of the United States and the government continues to be broken. Whatever the Office of President of the United States might be, it certainly can’t be an executive office as the executive Power has been vested in a President of the United States of America. The person elected to the Office of President by the Electoral College becomes President of the United States of America without having to take an oath of office.

    The United States Government Manual, the official annual handbook for what is called “the Federal Government” in its Preface states that it “provides comprehensive information on the agencies of the legislative, judicial, and executive branches.” The Manual lists the President of the United States as the administrative head of the executive branch of the Government even as it boldly cites Article II Section 1 of the Constitution: “[t]he executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.” The Federal Government hopes you will continue to ignore that the President of the United States and the President of the United States of America are two different offices.

    By now it should be obvious to anyone that has read this report; the Office of President of the United States is not the same office as the President of the United States of America. Incessant substitutions and repetition by government, schools and the media have caused the two different offices to merge in one President and that President is collecting taxes for Congress and putting people in prison for alleged violations of written law. In a sense, the Constitution does merge the Office of President of the United States of America with the Office of President by amending the Organic Law that created the United States of America. The Articles of Confederation declare in antique yet still valid language: “The stile of this confederacy shall be “The United States of America.” Just as the first Organic Law declares all men to be equal the second confirms all the States of the United States of America to be equal, thus, the Articles were famous for not permitting taxation of the people of the Union.

    The Constitution of 1787 created a new Union of States called “The United States”
    that was not yet equal to the States of the United States of America. The third Organic Law, “The Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787,” recognized the Northwest Territory in Article 4 as “a part of this Confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the Articles of Confederation, and to such alterations therein as be constitutionally made.” The Constitution of 1787 made “such alterations” to such a degree that the Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787 was replaced by it. The Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787 remains as the third Organic Law of the United States of America, but it is no longer useful to the United States Government, so the Organic Law of that government is limited to the first and last Organic Laws. The Government Manual confirms that the United States Government is limited to territory owned by the United States of America, by the inclusion of only the Declaration of Independence and Constitution of the United States as the Organic Law of the United States.

    The Constitution of 1787 was ratified, but could never be adopted by the States of the United States of America, as the territory of concern belonged to the United States of America. The Constitution is Organic Law that is only applicable to territory and other property belonging to the United States of America, so a State like New Hampshire could ratify the Constitution, but it could not adopt it. The Constitution was created in secret and then arranged like a puzzle, so only those who knew the code could really understand it. Adoption is one of those secrets. None of the original thirteen states could adopt the Constitution because the Constitution was meant to apply to territory and property that belonged to the United States of America. Adoption by most of the States began after the Civil War; however, the government remained broken because the President Elect continued to refuse to take the proper oath.

    The Constitution makes no provision for the election or appointment to the Office of President of the United States, so Washington used the authority of Article II Section 2 Clause 2 to appoint himself President of the United States. The failure of the Senate to advise and consent to the self-appointment initiated the creation of the United States Government presented in the Government Manual. Every person elected by the Electoral College to the Office of President has become President of the United States instead.

    The President of the United States can collect taxes and the President of the United States of America can't. The United States of America was formed by the ratification of the Articles of Confederation by all thirteen original States. The ratification of the Constitution by nine States created an executive officer for the United States of America. These Articles are part of the four documents that constitute the Organic Law of the United States of America.

    The United States Government Manual presents the limitations of the Government’s origins by presenting only the two parts of the Organic Law that apply to the Federal Government—the Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The Manual also places the federal tax collectors, Internal Revenue Service, within the Treasury Department, which are both part of the Administration of the President of the United States. The Manual confirms the statutory origin of The Treasury Department as 31U.S.C. 301 and 301 note, but erroneously claims that The Treasury Department was created on September 2, 1789. The actual statute, 1Stat 65, created a Department of Treasury, whose Secretary of the Treasury was “to superintend the collection of the revenue.” The Manual states that the “Office of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue was established by act of July 1, 1862 (26 U.S.C. 7802).” Both the Secretary of the Treasury and the Commissioner of Internal Revenue are appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the Senate.

    Article I Section 8 Clause 1 of the Constitution of September 17, 1787 grants to Congress the power to lay and collect taxes:
    The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States.

    How can the President of the United States, the Secretary of the Treasury and the Commissioner of Internal Revenue collect taxes laid by the Congress of the United States, if they are of and in the executive branch? Doesn’t the concept of the separation-of-powers restrict the executive officer to the executive duties set out in Article II of the Constitution?

    This report on the correct interpretation of the Constitution proves the President and Vice President of the United States to be of, and in the legislative branch. The proof is quite simple. Article II Section 1 Clause 1of the Constitution vests the executive power in “a President of the United States of America,” provides for a term of four years for he and the Vice President and then makes provision for their election by presidential Electors chosen by the States bound by the Articles of Confederation. The same election selects the person, who is to fill the Office of President, and whose eligibility for that office are determined by the qualifications found in Article II Section 1 Clause 5. The fourteen year residency requirement anticipated that the Constitution would not be adopted prior to July 4, 1790. The presidential Electors ignored the July 4, 1790 date and elected George Washington to the Office of President on February 4, 1789. As presiding officer of the Constitutional Convention, Washington could not ignore the residency requirement, so according to plan on April 30, 1789 he took the oath to the Office of President of the United States, an office without a definite term or any qualifications. His oath to “faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States” made it impossible to also fill the Office of President under the Constitution. The constitutional duties of the Office of President of the United States serve the legislative branch and clearly make it impossible to fill the primary “executive style office” under the Constitution. The States properly elected Washington to be President of the United States of America under both the Articles of Confederation and Constitution.
    The first President of the United States, George Washington, thus became the first “federal” tax collector. The word “federal” is a misnomer. The taxes imposed by the Congress of the United States are not based on any so-called federal authority over the States. The basis of the taxes is proprietary. In order to prepare the rest of the new central government that was made possible by Washington’s self appointment to the Office of President of the United States, the Congress of the United States enacted a new oath patterned after the oath in Article VI, but made compatible with the oath of the President of the United States to “preserve, protect and defend” the assets of the United States of America.

    It was George Washington, not the Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution that has made today’s federal income tax possible. The Congress of the United States has always had the proprietary power to make laws respecting any income made on the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America. Only Washington had sufficient power, authority and prestige to overcome the vigorous opposition of a certain segment of the American public living in Western Pennsylvania. These farmers had a general opposition to taxation of what they knew to be an unalienable right. Converting their grain crop to alcohol to solve a storage problem created income on their property not on property belonging to the United States of America. Only by pretending to be President under the newly ratified Constitution could Washington force compliance with the first revenue statutes that would eventually result in the dreaded federal income tax.

    Combining the Office of President of the United States and the Office of President, which in turn included the Office of President of the United States of America made it appear as if George Washington had been made an American king. If anyone questioned the coronation of such an American potentate, it could be laid to the will of the people. After all, they had approved the new Constitution. George Washington was a virtuous man, who in the case of the excise on the distillation of alcohol was not taxing all incomes just the income from the making of alcohol in the United States. No one at that time was making a credible case be for general income taxation of everyone in America. George Washington was the only man that the American people would trust with the enforcement of any revenue laws the Congress of the United States might enact. The power of the President of the United States to initiate a criminal prosecution against a person has to account for the power of the Congress of the United States to tax practically anything it wants. With the power of the President of the United States limited to the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America, the rest of the country would inevitably enjoy a Libertarian type government.

    Article I Section 7 required George Washington’s approval of each Bill passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate, because Washington was President of the United States. Nowhere in the Constitution is the President of the United States charged with the duty of enforcing the Bills he specifically approved or which were enacted despite his veto. Article II Section 3 requires of the President that “he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed,” but the context does not make it clear if it is the President of the United States of America or the President under the Constitution. It is clearly not the President of the United States. It would have to be the President under the Constitution, if one can ever be found who will take the Article VI oath “to support this Constitution.”

    Democrat Party Vice President candidate Joe Biden, while debating Sarah Palin, inadvertently, but correctly, placed the Vice President in Article I of the Constitution. Not surprisingly, the Office of President of the United States is also first found there in the Constitution. Everything the Constitution has to say about the office of President of the United States is found in Article I. Everything, except the oath of office of President of the United States is found in Article I of the Constitution. The oath of the President of the United States is found in Article II of the Constitution along with everything the Constitution has to say about the President of the United States of America and the Office of President.

    George Washington, as presiding officer of the secret Constitutional Convention made certain that the final draft of the Constitution was arranged so that taking the oath of President of the United States would be perceived to bind Washington to the Office of President under “this Constitution” and to be President of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation. Washington was able to take over the original Confederacy and the territory ceded to the United States of America, because before Washington was elected to the Office of President, he had been a national hero as Commander in Chief under the Continental Congress and the Articles of Confederation. His election to the Office of President and his long association with the United States of America facilitated public confusion when he took the Office of President of the United States instead of the Office of President.

    Election by the Electoral College is all that is necessary to qualify the President Elect to be President of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation, because the Articles require no oath of office. When George Washington took the oath of Office of President of the United States, he became a legislative officer capable of collecting taxes because he was part of the legislative branch. Every President since Washington has followed this precedent and has become a legislative Officer and President of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation. How can you tell them apart? They are known by the type of flag they fly.

    Whenever the President is acting in the Office of President of the United States, the flag of the United States will have a gold fringe and whenever the President is the President of the United States of America the United States flag displayed will be without a fringe. Whenever a foreign dignitary visits the White House and his or her flag is on display an un-fringed Old Glory will be displayed.

    The Congress of the United States was redundantly granted the power to tax the States of the Northwest Territory in Article I Section 8 of the Constitution, as the Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787 had already confirmed that proprietary power. Congress would exercise this power to tax by exercising it as the legislative power every owner of property has. Every hotel and motel room door has attached “house rules” that bind the guest staying in the room. Congress has taken this idea to an extreme and seemingly created rules for every person and piece of property in America. When the Northwest Territory was ceded to the United States of America, the power to make laws, rules and regulations were also conveyed. This proprietary power over the land owned by the United States of America was conveyed when the land was sold to a private investor. The legislative powers found in Article I Section 8 of the Constitution were retained by the Congress of the United States as long as the territory remained within the Union formed and created under the Constitution, but as soon as a territory was admitted into the perpetual Union of the Articles of Confederation the United States of America lost that legislative power except as to territory where ownership and jurisdiction were expressly retained. What is the biggest government secret? The legislative power of Congress is based on the ownership of property not on some non-existent constitutional power.

    The inherent legislative power in property rights was intentionally concealed in the Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787 and the Constitution, so that it would appear that the Congress of the United States had real legislative power over the people and their property in the several states. Because even the smallest State was equal to the largest, the Confederacy had no power to tax by legislation. The only tax permitted was a direct tax on land and buildings in each state collected by the legislature of each State.

    In the Constitutional Convention, Washington with Alexander Hamilton led a group of more than fifty men who wanted to create a constitution that would empower a government with the authority to tax Americans by legislation. To accomplish that they would have to create a new Union called the “United States” comprised of territory ceded to the United States of America. Their plan was to confuse the American public, so that it would accept this new Union comprised of ceded territory as a replacement of the old United States of America under the Articles of Confederation. History has shown that plan to have succeeded brilliantly. The exclusive legislative power the Congress of the United States has over the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America has been extended to every person in America.

    The secret of success of the Constitution as a manual for government is its flexibility. The Preamble, which is not part of the Constitution, suggests that a group of people identified as “We the People” have ordained and established it as a congregation would ordain a minister and establish a church. States can ratify it and finally it can be adopted. All that is for naught if the law it embodies is for a constantly shrinking territory. After the Constitution was ratified by the ninth State, New Hampshire, on June 21, 1788, the States that had ratified the Constitution were able to elect Representatives and Senators to attend the first session of the First Congress on March 4, 1789. The first act of Congress was to cleverly change the oath required by Article VI of the Constitution to achieve the Adoption referred to in Article II Section 1 Clause 5. The one Officer, who can “Adopt” the Constitution and put it into play, never takes Office by swearing or affirming “to support this Constitution.”

    Washington does not take the Office of President to which he has been unanimously elected. Washington takes the oath of Office of President of the United States and forever changes the future of government in America. As will be proven here, the Constitution created a new Union called the United States and the President of the United States takes an oath to “preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.” From April 30, 1789, the date George Washington takes the oath of Office of President of the United States, until sometime in the future when a President Elect takes the Office of President, “this Constitution,” the written document will only serve as guide as to how much the President and Congress of the United States can get away with.

    The old Union was a confederacy, a kind of government of States, where each State retains its “sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and right.” The implicit purpose of the United States of America, with respect to the people of the states, was to preserve, protect and defend the sovereignty, freedom, independence and God given rights of the people in the states. The Articles of Confederation were good enough to beat Great Britain, but in the opinion of George Washington and his cronies, known as the Founding Fathers, they had to be repealed or replaced by a constitution that would allow the government to tax ordinary people. The Articles of Confederation confirmed the sovereignty of the States to be States and the inhabitants of the state to remain free. The United States, in Congress assembled could not possibly have the power to legislate for the People of the State or the inhabitants within the state, because such power would destroy the “sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and right” of the States of the United States of America.

    Washington knew he and his friends could never get the Articles of Confederation repealed or replaced, but he knew his friend Alexander Hamilton could make a new Constitution appear as if it had repealed and replaced the old Articles of Confederation. The Founding Fathers, who knew the plan, did such a good job that most people today think that the Articles of Confederation were repealed and replaced by the Constitution.

    The Articles of Confederation are part of four Organic Laws, so it is impossible for them to be repealed and replaced. One of the Organic Laws, the Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787, written about the same time as the Constitution, repealed a prior ordinance, so the Continental Congress and the Framers of the Constitution knew what words must be used to repeal laws. Those words can be found in the last sentence of the Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787. Those words are found nowhere else in the Organic Laws.

    On May 25, 1787 the Constitutional Convention met in secret and continued to meet in secret until September 17, 1787, when the Constitution was given to the States for ratification by a least nine States, which would confirm the continued viability of the Articles of Confederation. Article VII of the Constitution establishes the Constitution between the nine States that ratify so at that moment both the Articles of Confederation and this Constitution are still binding on those States. Ratification of the Constitution by all thirteen States confirms what nine States could accomplish under the Articles of Confederation. Under the Articles of Confederation nine States could create a Committee of the States” that could conduct business while the United States, in Congress assembled were not in session. The nine States under the Articles of Confederation are the same as two thirds of the Senate of the United States.

    The Constitution created a new Union comprised of the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America in and without the original thirteen States, called the “United States.” The Congress of the United States was to have the power to legislate for these United States, but the States under the Articles of Confederation would remain as sovereign and independent as they had been before or so it was made to seem, until the Federalists could show the opposite.

    George Washington was elected unanimously by the Electoral College to the Office of President, which is identified in Article II Section 1 Clause 5. Pursuant to Article II Section 1 Clause 1, the President of the United States of America is selected at the same time the person who fills the Office of President by election by the Electoral College. George Washington was elected unanimously on February 4, 1789, but he never took the Office of President. Instead, he became the President of the United States by taking the oath for that Office and that has made all the difference.

    The Constitution prohibits diminishing the Compensation of the person who is elected to the Office of President, but the Constitution says nothing about taxing what the President of the United States is paid. Every federal income tax law has taxed the President of the United States and all those who were liable for the tax paid what they owed. No President of the United States who served during course of a federal income tax law has attempted to invoke Article II Section 1 Clause 7 to avoid the federal income tax, because they knew they were not qualified to claim the protection. The President of the United States can only claim the compensation appropriated by the Congress of the United States for the Office of President of the United States.

    The Constitution says so little about the Office of President of the United States that it is true that anyone can be President of the United States, if he could only be appointed. George Washington was in an excellent position to be appointed because as President he could appoint the President of the United States. Washington skipped the appointing process and went directly to the taking of the oath of Office of President of the United States. There is still a chance for Hillary Rodham Clinton to be appointed President of the United States, if she can rally her supporters to demand her appointment by the President Elect, whoever that might be.

    Washington was elected to the Office of President on February 4, 1789, too soon, but according to plan. Article II Section 1 Clause 5 requires the person, who is to fill the Office of President to be fourteen Years a resident within the United States. Counting from July 4, 1776 the Office of President could not be filled until July 4, 1790. If Washington was caught taking the wrong oath, he had this good excuse.

    This is what the Constitution says about a person who wants to fill the Office of President:
    No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. Article II Section 1 Clause 5

    Why did the Constitution require fourteen Years and not twelve? The Constitutional Convention was the mother of all conspiracies, so the fourteen Years requirement was there to provide George Washington with an excuse for not taking an Article VI oath. The Constitution was a frame up calculated to elect George Washington to the Office of President for which he would not qualify “forcing” him to appoint himself President of the United States.

    Washington in the first Inaugural Address, refused the constitutional Compensation provided for any of the Services he might perform while in the Office of President. Hold your applause for Washington’s generosity, he wanted everyone to think he had taken the Office of President, but the last thing he wanted was the burden of having to be President and have “to support this Constitution.” Before Washington could claim any Compensation under the Constitution for performing the Office of President, he had to take the oath of Office for all executive Officers prescribed in Article VI. George Washington would never take an oath “to support this Constitution,” because he had already taken the oath for the Office of President of the United States.

    As the name of the tax implies, the income tax is a tax on the income directly subject to the legislative power of the Congress of the United States. The second enactment of the new Congress of the United States in 1789 was one for the purpose of raising revenue and the Congress has never stopped such enactments. Everyone has missed the single most important characteristic of each one of these enactments: each one was limited to the new Union, the United States, territory and other property belonging to the United States of America. Of the these Presidents: President of the United States of America, President and President of the United States only the President of the United States is subject to taxation by the Congress of the United States.

    While the refusal to accept pay for performing the Office of President could have amounted to the payment of a 100% income tax, Washington was not entitled to the Compensation for the Office of President, since he had not taken the oath of Office of President. Washington had taken this oath:
    “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
    Washington was not entitled to any compensation under the Constitution because he would never take an oath that would bind him to support it and neither would anyone else. Congress enacted legislation providing the President of the United States a yearly salary of $25,000 plus the use of furniture at 1 Stat 72. This $25,000 was taxable by the Congress of the United States, because the President of the United States was subject to the legislative power of Congress. The President of the United States of America and President and everyone outside the new Union, the United States, and under the protection of the Articles of Confederation, are beyond the legislative power of the Congress of the United States.

    Washington’s unanimous election to the Office of President by the Electoral College made him President of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation, which requires no oath of office. Article VI of the Constitution, however, does require that “all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution.” Unlike the Office of President, the Constitution does not require the person appointed to the Office of President of the United States to be a natural born citizen or Citizen of the United States. Nothing prevents the appointment of an alien, a woman, or a minor to the Office of President of the United States. The special oath for the Office of President of the United States together with the provision that the President of the United States is subject to an impeachment presided over by the Chief Justice makes the President of the United States an officer and an employee of the Congress of the United States.

    The special status of the President of the United States subjects him to the legislative power of the Congress of the United States. As the employer of the President of the United States, the Congress may reduce or increase his pay by legislative process, the President of the United States not being an Article II Officer. Congress may tax the incomes of its own Officers and employees by directly reducing their compensation and by an excise on the performance of a public office measured by their income. By taking the oath of Office of President of the United States, George Washington was doing more than just surreptitiously combining the legislative Office of President of the United States with the Office of President and President of the United States of America he was laying the basis for a tax on the performance of a public office that would be fashioned into bogus, but collectible tax on the wealth of all the people.

    George Washington destroyed the possibility of limited government in America by his interpretation of the Constitution to permit him to appoint himself to the Office of President of the United States. That interpretation allowed him to act as if he lawfully held all three Offices of President: President, President of the United States and President of the United States of America. That interpretation was no less than the establishment of a Presidential Dictatorship in America and the federal income tax was an inevitable outcome. Every President elected to the Office of President by the Electoral College has repeated George Washington’s maneuver without having his excuse of not meeting the fourteen Years residency requirement.

    How did Washington take the sovereignty of the people in the states and hand it over to the politicians in Congress and the future Presidents of the United States? He read the Constitution exactly as James Madison and others had written it and determined that he was not qualified for the Office of President, because he had not been a Resident within the United States for the required 14 years. Counting from July 4, 1776, Washington calculated that the Office of President couldn’t be filled until July 4, 1790, so he appointed himself President of the United States and the Senate confirmed him by not objecting to what he had done.

    By taking the oath of Office of President of the United States, George Washington became part of the legislative branch of the Government of the United States of America. The government of the United States is without an executive, who has taken an oath of Office for the Office of President, because that kind of government was intended from the beginning and that government will remain a one branch government until a President Elect takes the Article VI oath “to support this Constitution,” to end the confusion.

    The oath of Office of President of the United States only appears “to support this Constitution.” The Constitution creates a new Union comprised of federal territory. The term “Constitution of the United States,” refers to the composition of the new Union not to a written Constitution. A close examination will reveal that the written Constitution is referred to in each of the seven articles as, “this Constitution.”

    The most important history of the federal income tax is, therefore, not to be found in the Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution. Cynthia G. Fox, Chief of the Military and Civil Records Unit of the National Archives and Records Administration, wrote in a magazine of the NARA, Prologue: Selected Articles, Winter 1986, Volunteer 18, No.4:
    What else do we know about the income tax? We were taught in school that the Constitution as originally written did not include permission for the federal government to levy direct taxes on individual citizens. To correct this deficiency the sixteenth amendment was proposed and ratified on February 25, 1913, giving Congress the power to tax incomes “from whatever source derived.” Many people believe that this was the first income tax that Americans had to pay. However, the first income tax was actually levied almost fifty-one years earlier by an act of Congress on July 1, 1862 (12 Stat. 432).

    Granting the Congress the power to lay and collect taxes on incomes leaves Congress with the burden of collecting the taxes it has imposed by legislation. The Constitution is just part of an elaborate scheme cooked up by George Washington and his Masonic buddies to shake down Americans. The President of the United States can collect these taxes because the President of the United States is part of the legislative branch. The President of the United States, his administration and the federal bureaucracy also supplies part of the tax base for the federal income tax.

    President of the United States Abraham Lincoln paid the income tax, but the Chief Justice Roger Taney objected thinking the Supreme Court to be an Article III court. All federal judges including the Supreme Court Justices now pay the federal income tax because they are all part of the legislative branch not because all citizens must.

    Everyone thinks the Sixteenth Amendment made the modern income tax possible, because it appears to have something to do with the power of the Congress to tax the people’s power to create wealth. The Sixteenth Amendment is being misread, because the punctuation of the Amendment is being ignored. The Amendment is one sentence, so the period can be eliminated from our investigation leaving us only the commas to account for.

    Without the first two commas, the Sixteenth Amendment reads: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on income from whatever source derived without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.” This is exactly how the federal government reads it and how the IRS uses the Sixteenth Amendment in its attempts to collect income taxes. Without its proper punctuation, the Sixteenth Amendment looks like an anomaly, an unapportioned direct tax.

    With the first two commas in place, the prepositional phrase: “from whatever source derived,” modifies the power to lay and collect taxes on income. The primary function of comma is to separate words that should not touch. Without a comma between “income” and “from,” the income tax becomes, as Cynthia G. Fox believes, a direct tax that does not have to be apportioned. George Washington made it possible to enslave Americans by removing the protection of the Constitution and in doing so provided the source of Congress’s power to tax incomes. Federal income tax collection methods are no more than a collection of forms employing scary words set in capital letters strung together with sentence fragments suggesting that the addressee is indebted to the new Union.

    The November 4, 2008 election of a President of the United States of that Union promises to be close. The candidates in that election have been disclosing their federal tax returns for years. George Washington was unanimously elected to the Office of President on February 4, 1789. By the simple act of taking the oath to the Office of President of the United States on April 30, 1789, he made the federal income tax possible on July 1, 1862. We know that Abraham Lincoln paid the federal income tax on his Compensation as President of the United States and that he never took any other oath than the oath of Office of President of the United States. Ever since the Sixteenth Amendment was ratified in 1913, the President of the United States has paid the federal income tax on his compensation for services. What will you do this election now that you are more knowledgeable on the issues than you have ever been? Wouldn’t you like Barack Obama or John McCain to take the right oath and end the federal income tax?

    George Washington’s honesty is a myth. Both the major 2008 presidential candidates have lied to the people that’s the only way their election is possible. Washington could and did tell many lies. To be President, President of the United States of America and President of the United States he had to deceive all the American people. Today’s candidates will carry on the tradition of deceit or one of them will do what is right. This election don’t let them believe that the oath of Office of President of the United States is the oath of Office of President. Washington knew it wasn’t. He knew the oath was near the middle of the Constitution for the purpose of limiting the oath to what preceded it. He knew he couldn’t take the oath to the Office of President and the oath to the Office of President of the United States, but he didn’t tell anyone what he was doing. He didn’t tell a soul, because the Constitution prohibits the President from taking another Office under the Constitution:
    The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period and other Emolument from the United States, or any of them. Article II Section 1 Clause 7

    President Elect Washington would have been President of the United States of America under the authority of the Articles of Confederation and the President under the Constitution because he was elected by the presidential Electors. By taking the oath of Office of President of the United States, he managed a clean sweep of the three Offices of President. As if by magic, George Washington now had the ability to extend legislative power beyond the government District, the Northwest Territory to the States of the Confederacy. Just by taking a well placed oath that stopped short of recognition of the real powers and responsibilities of the Office of President, he would be able to act as if all the legitimate powers of three Offices had been conferred on one man, George Washington.

    Without Washington, the Office of President and the Office of President of the United States would, today, be considered to be the two separate Offices they are and we would have limited Libertarian government. Only George Washington had the fame and prestige that would arouse no discernable suspicion, when he took an oath that was nothing like the simple oath required by the Sixth Article “to support this Constitution.” Maybe Madison was the “master builder of the Constitution, but it turned out to be a Trojan Horse George Washington used to claim America and Americans for the developing corporate interests.

    George Washington had taken dictatorial power, had broken the government and no one noticed. No one would notice that George Washington made it possible for Abraham Lincoln to impose the first federal income tax in 1862. The Civil War federal income tax was an excise on the performance of a public office just as it is today. Abraham Lincoln and his Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase, paid the tax willingly and
    Chase as Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court went on to defend it in Congress’s highest court.

    The Constitution that was sent to the States for ratification by State Conventions made provision in Article I for a local government limiting legislation and taxation to a small government District, the Northwest Territory, other territory and property belonging to the United States of America. Article II confirmed the existing Articles of Confederation Committee of States executive power in a President of the United States of America under the still viable authority of those Articles. That same President of the United States of America would also have authority pursuant to the new Constitution for the United States of America, as occupant of the Office of President. Article III established a Supreme Court to exercise the judicial power of the Confederacy over the States relating to the powers they had delegated and those described in Section 2.

    Employing a strict interpretation of the Constitution, the person elected President by the Electoral College would have to, first, take the Article VI oath “to support this Constitution” before he could then appoint the President and Vice President of the United States. Those two Officers would be limited to the duties imposed on them in Article I. George Washington’s accomplices in the House of Representatives and Senate allowed once again the takeover of people recently freed from one tyrant to be handed over to a new one. The American novelty is that it has been done for two, four, and six-year terms for a total of 219 years.

    The two Offices are undeniably separate offices. The “Office of President of the United States” is mentioned twice. First, in Article I Section 3 Clause 5:
    The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
    Second, in Article II Section 1 Clause 8:
    “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

    The one time the “Office of President” is mentioned in Article II Section 1 Clause 5 is for the purpose of identifying the qualifications for the Office of President:
    No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States

    The Constitution does not establish qualifications for the Office of President of the United States. A term of four years is established for President of the United States of America and Vice President, but no terms are prescribed for the President and President and Vice President of the United States. The deception of Washington, Madison and Hamilton is hidden in plain sight in the Constitution. Those who take the trouble to read the Constitution critically will be astounded at what they find. Those who read it like a recipe from a cookbook mentally substituting the Office of President with the Office of President of the United States will miss an opportunity to learn the truth about State and federal government.

    Washington was able to combine the two Offices by simply taking the oath of Office of President of the United States, instead of the Article VI oath “to support this Constitution.” Throughout the Constitution a distinction is made between “this Constitution” as a written document and the Constitution of the United States as the territory to be governed by the new Congress of the United States and President and Vice President of the United States. The confusion of Presidents created by Madison’s writing of the Constitution let George Washington take the Office of President without taking the proper oath. Washington and his cronies, the so-called Founding Fathers managed to take over the federal government without firing a shot. Historians credit George Washington and his cohorts with a brilliant coup d' etat unaware of how the takeover was really achieved.

    James Madison has been credited with a major part of the writing of the Constitution, however, it was George Washington who presided over the Constitutional Convention and it was his Machiavellian intervention that has undone constitutional government in America. In my view, no man has done more to destroy individual freedom than George Washington yet he is lauded as a great liberator and father of the country. There can be no doubt that he more than any other person created the United States as a country. It is much too late to condemn him for what he has done. A fitting tribute to the old Commander in Chief would be to award him the title: Father of the Federal Income Tax.

    We must waste no time in studying how he set into motion plans that transformed thrifty Yankees in free spending tax paying consumers. His successors have continued those policies and have avoided the constitutional prohibition against holding more than one Office by simply asking that they be addressed as Mr. President. George Washington single handedly changed the Constitution that provided for a government for the Northwest Territory and similar territory within the original thirteen states consisting of a Congress of the United States and a President and Vice President of the United States into the continually failing representative democracy of today.

    Once in the Office of President of the United States, Washington and the Congress of the United States could begin to create a government for the United States, the new Union of federal territory by the enactment of statute laws. Today, those laws are found in a United States Code of 50 Titles. Because George Washington took the oath of Office of President of the United States, he had no obligation or responsibility “to support this Constitution,” according to the oath in Article VI.

    There is no real Constitution limiting the federal government. Big federal government can bully the State governments because State sales and income taxes are dependent on the existence of federal territory within each State. The federal income tax sucks so much out of any State’s economy that not even the largest State has been able to compete with Washington, D. C. Without an oath to recognize the entire Constitution, the Constitution for the United States of America remains just a piece of paper. George Washington never took an oath “to support this Constitution,” and the precedent he set has continued without a break. No person elected by the Electoral College has ever taken any oath other than the one that appears in the middle of the Constitution.

    Did George Washington permanently change the Constitution? Washington did not change anything in the Constitution. He caused everyone to believe that there was a Constitution and he was the one person who could be trusted to “preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.” Washington proved that an elected President could appoint himself to be President of the United States and was President of the United States of America by virtue of his election to President, but that was his limit. No one can hold two Offices under any part of the Constitution.

    When Washington took the Office of President of the United States, the Office of President under the Constitution became regularly and continually vacant. Washington refused to accept the compensation paid to person holding the Office of President, so that acceptance of the benefits of that Office would not bind him to the oath of that Office. Did Washington really forego Compensation for the performance of a public office, the Office of President of the United States? On September 24, 1789 Congress enacted Chapter XIX.—An Act for allowing a Compensation to the President and Vice President of the United States. 1Stat 72. The compensation of $25,000 per year was a statutory payment not one based on the Constitution.

    All Presidents since George Washington have held the statutory office of president found in Title 3 of the United States Code. That Presidential statutory authority is represented by the official residence of the President—The White House. The legislative branch has created an “executive mansion” for its legislative/chief executive and President of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation. The Office of President of the United States is a true dictatorship. There are no qualifications for that Office and there is no definite term of Office. Residence in the White House is the accepted notice of retirement from the Office of President of the United States. The old one leaves just as a new one moves in. Title 3 Section 20 of the United States Code requires a written resignation delivered to the Office of the Secretary of State, so without a written resignation a President of the United States never really leaves office.

    The United States Supreme Court, as a statutory creation, does not establish nor can it represent an independent third branch of government. Since Washington became the first President of the United States, any and all “judicial” appointments have been made by a President of the United States, who is not granted any power to appoint judicial officers. The President of the United States is also President of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation. The courts that could be created pursuant to the Articles of Confederation were limited to issues involved in captures and piracies on the high seas.

    On the date of enactment, September 24th, Section 2 of the Judiciary Act of 1789 divided the new Union, the United States into thirteen districts. The division of the United States into thirteen districts, when only eleven States had ratified the Constitution, confirms that the United States, as the new Union, consists of the territory and other property belonging to the United States of America. Eleven of the districts were named for the States that had ratified and the remaining two were named for Kentucky and Maine. On September 24, 1789, the territorial jurisdiction of the United States district courts for the districts of Kentucky and Maine could only be territory and other property belonging to the United States of America. The territorial jurisdiction of those two courts would not change when Kentucky was admitted into the Union on June 1, 1792 and when Maine was admitted on March 15, 1820.

    Today, the modern Constitution of the United States can be recognized in Chapter 5 of Title 28 United States Code, the Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. The territorial composition of the district and divisions of the federal district courts are shown in Sections 81-131 of Chapter 5. In those sections are found all names of the 50 States now in the Union created by the Constitution. We know that the districts and divisions are composed of territory and other property belonging to the United States of America, because Puerto Rico is the State identified in Section 119. Puerto Rico is a “federal” State but not a State of the United States of America. Puerto Rico has non-voting Representatives in Congress and no Senators in the Senate. Title 3 of the United States Code specifically excludes Puerto Rico as a State. Washington, D. C. is a federal State, but not a State of the United States of America.

    The “one supreme Court” of Article III of the Constitution is ordained and established by the ratification of the Constitution, which provides that the holder of the Office of President shall appoint the Judges of the Supreme Court. The perpetual vacancy in the Office of President caused by George Washington’s precedent setting refusal “to support this Constitution,” by taking the proper oath of Office, has prevented the establishment of a real judicial court system. The courts established pursuant to the Judiciary Act of 1789 can only be legislative courts exercising “legislative power” derived from the proprietary authority over territory and other property belonging to the United States of America. They cannot be independent judicial courts exercising the judicial power of the United States of America, because, among other reasons, the power of appointment of the Judges of the Supreme Court was granted to an Office of President that has remained vacant for almost 220 years. The President of the United States it should be noted appoints Justices not Judges to the Supreme Court.

    What are the possibilities of error in my analysis of the constitutional provisions presented here? My investigation can be easily confirmed by any computer word processing program. When one searches for the Office of President of the United States of America, the computer will not find the Office of President as a match and neither should you or anyone else. Similarly, the computer will not lie and tell you that a Justice is a Judge. That finding should eliminate all opinions of the federal courts. Purely legislative creations, all the federal courts including the U.S. Supreme Court are without judicial authority.

    The Constitution is the fourth Organic Law for the United States of America. The three Organic Laws that predate the Constitution for the United States of America confirm that the Constitutional Convention was bound by that Organic Law, so it had no choice but to create limited government. Only by deception could the Constitutional Convention create the constitutional vehicle by which the first President could rob Americans of their freedom. That freedom can be easily reclaimed simply by demanding that the person elected by the Electoral College take the oath “to support this Constitution,” or you can simply take your leave of the worse parts of the new Union and re-establish the Articles of Confederation.

    This is the truth and the truth has made me free. ~ Doug Herich
     
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  5. ucc207

    ucc207 New Member

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    Then there is that nagging question......am I a party to a deal brokered in 1776?

    I never signed anything consenting to be governed?

    Since when am I "in" a state?

    What gives the State the authority to claim I am "in" their state? Do the people collectively own the land, air and water?

    Where did I as grantor grant such authority to any thing?

    Of the people for the people? Anyone here have a great grandfather that ever said they voted on ratifying anything?

    Maybe voted on the creation of a state constitution and that was most likely the last hing voted on there too.

    Whats the last amendment ratification anyone has voted for?

    separation of government?

    SCOTUS rules and ALL states follow supreme law of scotus.

    From what I can tell its all a ruse, this idea of sovereignty!

    No group has a right to claim I am of their group! Well except a slave owner and being morn into slavery maybe? Not that its a valid right but a claim none the less.

     
    Last edited: Sep 17, 2010
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  6. minimus

    minimus Banned

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    Its the revised tampered with edition, missing the original (never repealed) 13th Amendment outlawing "titles of nobility" and the non ratified (bogus) 16th Amendment.
     
  7. ucc207

    ucc207 New Member

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  8. wckdmsft

    wckdmsft New Member

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    Being Im actually related to G.W.. I will admit gramma would tell me stories about things he did n I have to say she was not happy with him.. Now on the flip side she was very proud of grampa Lee,"Robert E. Lee" Through the years I learned why. I will say you are 100% correct in what you say n I could probably fill you in on a few more details there my friend...
     
  9. anotherdave

    anotherdave Banned

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    As long as we are going to quote the Constitution, let's do it with some authority:

    http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/

    This version is much easier to follow than the one which was at the Government Printing Office

    http://www.gpoaccess.gov/constitution/browse.html

    but now seems to be missing from their website.
     
  10. michael59

    michael59 heads up-butts down Gold Chaser

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    Wow...I never knew....
     
  11. anotherdave

    anotherdave Banned

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    I discovered this book in hardback in the reference section of my library about twenty years ago. It changed my life. I no longer quote the bullshi7 "everybody knows" laws we've been educated to assume, I quote the actual law as it exists in reality, and point to where it can be found.

    Something very apparent when viewing this book is the massive size of Supreme Court decisions concerning the 14th Amendment. It takes up over half of the book. (The 14th. being the "amendment" where you give up your state citizenship to become a U.S. corporate entity.)
     
  12. michael59

    michael59 heads up-butts down Gold Chaser

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    Of which are you referring too?
    The Orphan Constitution?
    CRC annotated?
    gpoaccess ?

    I started on the 14th seems my eyeballs had had enough but am back from doing the garden today so ready to roll...
     
  13. anotherdave

    anotherdave Banned

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    http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/
     
  14. searcher

    searcher Mother Lode Found Site Supporter ++ Mother Lode

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    Thought this pretty interesting..................

    The REAL Inspiration for the American Constitution

    Posted on April 12, 2015 by WashingtonsBlog


    The Forgotten Source for Separation of Powers

    The United States Constitution was an inspired document. The authors were brilliant, and the Founding Fathers who wrote it geniuses.

    But they didn’t pull their inspiration out of thin air …

    For example, one of the core principles which the Founding Fathers built into the American system of government and our Constitutions is separation of powers.

    This idea – also called “checks and balances” – ensures that no single person or group can seize all of the powers for themselves. Decisions are therefore more likely to benefit the nation as a whole … and not just those making decisions.

    As Lord Acton noted:

    Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.


    By spreading power around, absolute corruption is less likely to occur.

    But few people know where the Founding Fathers’ got their inspiration for the principle of separation of powers.

    The New York Times noted in 1988:

    In the mid-16th century, five northeastern Indian tribes – Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida and Cayugaa – formed the Iroquois Confederacy, joined later by the Tuscarora tribe. They adopted a constitution, reflecting concepts of checks and balances and separation of powers that impressed such later Americans as Washington, Franklin and other Founding Fathers. Indeed, historians maintain that many principles of the Iroquois constitution were woven into the United States Constitution.



    That same year, Congress passed a resolution stating:

    Whereas, the original framers of the constitution, including most notably, George Washington and Benjamin Franklin, are known to have greatly admired the concepts, principles and government practices of the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy; and


    Whereas, the Confederation of the original thirteen colonies into one Republic was explicitly modeled upon the Iroquois Confederacy as were many of the democratic principles which were incorporated into the Constitution itself ….

    The Congress, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the signing of the United States Constitution, acknowledges the historical debt which this Republic of the United States of America owes to the Iroquois Confederacy and other Indian Nations for their demonstration of enlightened, democratic principles of government ….



    And see this.


    Thomas Jefferson also had close dealings with the Iroquois:

    Prominent figures, such as Thomas Jefferson in colonial Virginia … were involved with leaders of the New York-based Iroquois Confederacy.



    One of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention – John Rutledge of South Carolina – read lengthy tracts from the Iroquois Constitution to the other framers, beginning with the words “We, the people, to form a union, to establish peace, equity, and order ….”




    America Must Re-Establish Separation of Powers

    America has lost the separation of powers in our government.

    The federal government is trampling the separation of powers by stepping on the toes of the states and the people. For example, former head S&L prosecutor Bill Black – now a professor of law and economics – notes:

    The Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the resident examiners and regional staff of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency [both] competed to weaken federal regulation and aggressively used the preemption doctrine to try to prevent state investigations of and actions against fraudulent mortgage lenders.


    And the courts have been stripped of their ability to review the illegal actions of the other branches of government.

    America must re-establish the principle of separation of powers … or we will slide into tyranny.

    Postscript: The Iroquois Constitution also contained the following rule:

    In our every deliberation, we must consider the impact of our decisions on the next seven generations.



    Americans would be wise to adopt this type of long-range thinking.

    Note: Admittedly, Aristotle, Calvin, Montesquieu and other Western thinkers also discussed separation of powers.


    But America’s Founding Fathers were most directly inspired by visiting the Iroquois, reading their Constitution, and watching their government in action.



    After all, seeing a principle actually working in practice in the real world is much more inspirational than reading theories or debating ancient history.


    http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2015/04/little-known-inspiration-american-constitution.html
     
  15. Mujahideen

    Mujahideen Black Member Midas Member

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    Cool OP, but too much bull shit for the average person.

    Office of the president and office of the president of the United States...

    The UNITED STATES and the United States...

    It all needs to be rewritten, but the populace is far too dumb to even consider doing so.
     

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