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The Art of making Colloidal Silver

Discussion in 'Alt Medicine/Coll Silver' started by abeland1, Mar 16, 2014.



  1. Thecrensh

    Thecrensh Gold Member Gold Chaser

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    He wasn't pro or con and stated that it is very effective when used topically. I don't think he's bought in to "Pharma" or anything...he's pretty conservative politically. Just stating what he knew or had been taught. As for your personal experiences, I'm sure they are real...I've taken CS as well and used it topically for several years. It's very effective in my opinion and experience.
     
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  2. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    If you have come across this thread to learn how to make colloidal silver properly and have gone to this, which is presently the last post in the thread, I would like to suggest that you start from the very first post of the thread. The purpose of the thread was, and remains, an effort to provide accurate, honest, and non-commercial information to those interested in making the most effective form of colloidal silver.
    The biggest problem with colloidal silver is its name. If we call something colloidal, it simply means that it is held in suspension. For example, milk is colloidal butterfat. As it is homogenized, the fat particles will tend to stay in suspension because the particles have been agitated to the point where they are small enough to not combine and rise to the top.
    Now, what does this have to do with making colloidal silver? It's not hard to understand why we want the smallest possible particles of silver. Let's face it. We don't want any more metal of any kind in our body other than that what we need to stay well or help to heal a wound or infection. For a given total weight of metal, small particles will result in a much greater surface area than large particles. For silver to have any effect on the microbe, it has to come into contact with that microbe. For the sake of simplicity, let's consider our particles as spheres. If our particle is 100 nm in diameter, it will weigh the same as about 10,000 1 nm particles. What would have a better chance of getting to the bacteria we want to kill? 10,000 or one?
    "Colloidal silver" is sold with ratings of parts per million "PPM." This is the ratio of the weight of the water versus the weight of the silver contained and suspended in the water. This measurement is made by the method of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A sample is burned, and the light emitted includes spectral lines for silver, the amplitude of which gives an indication of the parts per million, by weight. There is nothing in this method to distinguish between ions, "charged" particles and uncharged.
    It is straightforward for unscrupulous manufacturers of colloidal silver to make and advertise "colloidal silver" with strengths of 20, 30, 50, or 500 PPM. All they have to do is generate large particles and coat them with a substance lighter than water so that they will stay in suspension. These solutions will have a color as the larger particles will block out portions of the ambient light trying to shine through the water. The larger the particles, the more color will appear beginning with light yellow to dark yellow and so on. There is no real evidence to suggest that these solutions will do you harm except for leading to a condition called argyria. They should be avoided because they will be relatively much less effective than a solution of silver ions.
    As you read through the thread, you will find numerous citations of serious, peer-reviewed studies illustrating the superiority of silver ions in killing bacteria to silver particles. The number of silver ions is measured in terms of the electrical conductivity. When this thread started, the only instruments with the ability to measure this were quite expensive. The price of these has come down to an amazing degree. An instrument capable of measuring ionic PPM within one or two ppm is now available on eBay for less than $10. If you're going to make colloidal silver "ionic" one of these should be the first thing that you purchase. The second thing is to make sure of is that you get genuine 9999 pure silver wire with a certificate of analysis from a reputable source. Other than that, all you need is a voltage source and a resistor to limit the current. A multimeter with the 2 V scale and an additional 1K resistor will allow you to measure your current in microamps. That is all you need to make perfect, clear colloidal silver. With a certain amount of experimentation, you will be able to make your own colloidal silver of a quality equal to all but a very few of the offerings of commercial manufacturers.
     
    Last edited: Sep 30, 2017
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  3. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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  4. Weatherman

    Weatherman In GIM since 2006 Gold Chaser Site Supporter

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    Good video about super bugs. The video after about towels is an eye opener too.
     
  5. GOLDBRIX

    GOLDBRIX God,Donald Trump,most in GIM2 I Trust. OTHERS-meh Site Supporter Platinum Bling

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    I put EIS/CS in my wash. For sports gear, underwear, work socks, and clothes heavily sweated on they get an shot glass full as the water is running and before the detergent is added. Nylon type, sweat wicking, compression shirts and sports clothes get another shot of EIS/CS placed in the Fabric Softener cup since most of that clothing DOES NOT recommend fabric softener use.

    I don't use as much on towels, wash clothes and linens, BUT I probably will up those to a shot glass too.

    "An Ounce of Prevention...."
     
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  6. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles

    Jason, of Silvermedicine.org, directed my attention to the following:
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3936614/
    He adds:
    "The only way to make a high quality nano silver product is via the chemistry method. Of course, EIS produced with LVDC doesn't create a high enough concentration of silver nano particles to really be of concern.
    At this point, it looks to me like silver ions are more effective with fungii and bacteria. Non-stabilized silver nanoparticles (like the small amount of particles produced when making EIS) appear to release silver ions into the environment under many conditions.You now have products out there with particulate nano silver in the hundreds of parts per million for sale. These are produced using the same chemistry method, only the method is employed during electrolysis, rather then afterwards.With a properly made product, I believe it is safe to experiment with products with a PPM range of up to 15 PPM. For those who feel the need to throw the kitchen sink at the dreaded "Whatever" mystery illnesses, one could experiment with higher PPM ionic silver solutions/EIS (now that AtlasNova has an effective established process) combined with the higher PPM silver nano particle colloids.
    ~Jason"
    The study looks legitimate to me. It must make the pharmaceutical industry very happy. They may well have encouraged it, for all we know. It had to be funded, after all. Even so, it's real science, and we need to pay attention to it. You don't want something in your bloodstream that it attacks human cells. The study shows that the particles have to be above a certain size, far above the size of an ion, to exhibit this effect. With chemically produced colloidal silver cytotoxicity starts to become evident at 100 PPM, as seen in the microscopic pictures.
    I can only hope that the poster on this thread who twice promoted this technique of what he feels is the only, "real colloidal silver," studies this work, (which is endorsed by his employer), and considers the possible consequences of his actions.
     
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  7. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    I have been a history buff from the time when I was just a little kid. The single most important factor in the Fortune of different human societies has been the occurrence of plagues. This is a well-done explanation of why the New World was so easily conquered by the old. Worth viewing.
    https://shar.es/1VNowU
     
  8. GOLDBRIX

    GOLDBRIX God,Donald Trump,most in GIM2 I Trust. OTHERS-meh Site Supporter Platinum Bling

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    TRUE, But the New World gave the Old World nee the Entire World : SYPHILIS
     
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  9. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    Yes GB, I guess those llamas are just plain irresistible.
    https://qz.com/580139/thanks-columbus-the-true-story-of-how-syphilis-spread-to-europe/
    These gentle animals were alleged to have difficulty in copulating. Men would assist them in the process, sometimes participating in bestiality, which has been depicted in the water jars (huacos) of the period. Among the Incas, the fear of infection resulting from bestiality was so strong that Peruvian monarchs inflicted harsh punishments upon those who practiced such bestial acts. There was a rule compelling men assisting the mounting to take their wives with them, and assigned the care of female llamas to women only. A man designated to assist the llamas in the mounting, (so-called the man who assist to whelp ), had to be married. In addition, in Peru, an ancient law existed which forbid unmarried men to keep female alpacas at home.The people who contracted huanthi (the local name for llama infection) through sexual relations with the llamas were considered a source of infection and sentenced to death. Despite such strict measures, llama bestiality frequently resulted in genital lesions on men. These were highly contagious.

    Just one more example of the truism "you can't fix stupid."
     
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  10. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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  11. PKovach

    PKovach New Member

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    Ok, I do not know if this has been answered yet or not do to the volume of posts I have yet to go through, but I will go ahead and reply to certian posts.
    The good bacteria in the gut is anaerobic, which means it does not need oxygen to exist. Bad bacteria are aerobic and require oxygen to survive. Silver inhibits the ability of bad bacteria to utilize oxygen thus killing the bad bacteria. This is why there is no "resistance" capability of bad bacteria since they cannot sporadically become anaerobic. Further, silver is attracted to bad bacteria via its cell wall. Most often, the silver, if it does not outright kill the bacteria, binds to the DNA of the bacteria and prevents it from unwinding, thus preventing reproduction. ( I believe I saw an article from Abeland1 on this in relation to Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Silver Ion in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The silver causes an ABNC state. This is caused by the silver binding with the DNA strands preventing replication. The virus or bacteria continues its lifespan until it dies without ever reproducing.
     
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  12. PKovach

    PKovach New Member

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    It may not work to try to convert it to EIS, but why not do as they have done on the International Space Station and make all the water pass through a Silver filter? That would clean the water and naturally relaease silver into the water as well.
     
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  13. PKovach

    PKovach New Member

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    This was going to be somthing I wanted to point out as well in the discussion about intestinal bacteria. As states, EIS will not harm good bacteria in the intestine. People often wrongly attribute the bad feeling they get after taking EIS as being the loss of good intestinal bacteria. This is not the case. The actual reason for the ill feeling is the Herxheimer effect as your body is trying to eliminate all the dead bacteria and viruses in your body killed off by the EIS.
     
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  14. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    Here are some reasons to consider making EIS at a strength of 50 PPM:

    Influenza viruses are among the most unpredictable disease actors around. These constantly changing germs regularly humiliate anyone who is rash enough to forecast the potential severity of an upcoming flu season or how well — or poorly — the vaccine might work this year.
    “I wouldn’t,” Dr. Kanta Subbarao, director of the World Health Organization’s influenza collaborating center in Australia, said with a laugh when asked what she would project the Northern Hemisphere might be facing, flu-wise, in the coming months. “I’ve been in this business too long to fall into the trap of trying to predict.”
    That said, flu experts are a bit worried right now. There are some signals they think may foretell that we’re facing a nasty flu season. But they hand-to-heart don’t know whether the constellation of things that is worrying them will lead to clogged doctors offices
    unnamed (1).jpg
     
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  15. GOLDBRIX

    GOLDBRIX God,Donald Trump,most in GIM2 I Trust. OTHERS-meh Site Supporter Platinum Bling

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    QUOTE from KP..."...The actual reason for the ill feeling is the Herxheimer effect as your body is trying to eliminate all the dead bacteria and viruses in your body killed off by the EIS". Close Quote.

    This very well could be what takes place to the body that is void of silver ( Mega Farming Mineral Leaching I believe is the culprit) and EIS/CS is re-introduced into the system.
    Whether this theory is correct or not IDK.
    I do recall the first time I took any Ag was in the form of Sovereign Silver, a claimed "silver hydrosol". As I had researched I only took one tablespoon of the product. Within in a hour I noticed I had a low grade headache that was eliminated with two aspirins.
    I have not had any issues taking any amount of Sovereign Silver, Meso Silver, or any level of my DIY production since, including a shot glass full of 50ppm CSG-ULTRA.
     
    Last edited: Oct 20, 2017
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  16. PKovach

    PKovach New Member

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    For the record, so other readers understand what we mean by the Herxheimer Reaction
    http://www.silver-colloids.com/Pubs/herxheimer.html

    The Herxheimer Reaction - Feeling worse before feeling better

    The Herxheimer Reaction is a short-term (from days to a few weeks) detoxification reaction in the body. As the body detoxifies, it is not uncommon to experience flu-like symptoms including headache, joint and muscle pain, body aches, sore throat, general malaise, sweating, chills, nausea or other symptoms.

    This is a normal — and even healthy — reaction that indicates that parasites, fungus, viruses, bacteria or other pathogens are being effectively killed off. The biggest problem with the Herxheimer reaction is that people stop taking the supplement or medication that is causing the reaction, and thus discontinue the very treatment that is helping to make them better. Although the experience may not make you feel particularly good, the Herxheimer Reaction is actually a sign that healing is taking place.

    What Is The Herxheimer Reaction?

    The Herxheimer Reaction is an immune system reaction to the toxins (endotoxins) that are released when large amounts of pathogens are being killed off, and the body does not eliminate the toxins quickly enough. Simply stated, it is a reaction that occurs when the body is detoxifying and the released toxins either exacerbate the symptoms being treated or create their own symptoms. The important thing to note is that worsening symptoms do not indicate failure of the treatment in question; in fact, usually just the opposite.

    A Rose By Any Other Name

    Technically known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction, this syndrome goes by many names, including JHR, the Herxheimer Effect, the Herxheimer Response, a Herx Reaction, Herx or Herks. The most common terminology used is the Herxheimer Reaction. It is also often referred to as a healing crisis, a detox reaction, or die-off syndrome.

    History

    The phenomenon was first described by Adolf Jarisch (1860-1902) working in Vienna, Austria, and a few years later by Karl Herxheimer (1861-1942), working in Frankfort, Germany. Both doctors were dermatologists mainly treating syphilitic lesions of the skin. They noticed that in response to treatment, many patients developed not only fever, perspiration, night sweats, nausea and vomiting, but their skin lesions became larger and more inflamed before settling down and healing. Interestingly, they found that those who had the most extreme reactions healed the best and fastest. The patient might be ill for 2-3 days, but then their lesions resolved.

    A Medical Example

    The Herxheimer reaction is caused by the release of toxic chemicals (endotoxins) released from the cell walls of dying bacteria due to effective treatment. The Herxheimer Reaction is well recognized in medical circles and is certainly not confined to the world of natural medicine or supplements.

    For example, a recent study report (Feb ’04) on the treatment of Sarcoidosis found that, “. . . without exception, the improving patients are reporting periodic aggravation of their symptoms as an apparent direct response to the antibiotics. In other words, these patients say that their treatment makes them feel much worse before they experience symptom-relief.” The abstract of the study goes on to say, “This phenomenon is known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction (JHR) and is often referred to informally as Herx. JHR is believed to be caused when injured or dead bacteria release their endotoxins into blood and tissues faster than the body can comfortably handle it. . . . This provokes a sudden and exaggerated inflammatory response . . . . In Sarcoidosis patients, the Herxheimer reaction seems to be a valuable indication that an antibiotic is reaching its target.” In the conclusion, the author states: “In my work with Sarcoidosis patients, it is my experience that recovering MP patients understand and welcome the Herxheimer reactions even when they must endure temporary increased suffering. They accept it as the price that they must pay in order to get well and they even seem to find it gratifying to experience tangible evidence of bacterial elimination. “

    Colloidal Silver & The Herxheimer Reaction

    Herxheimer reactions in response to Colloidal Silver can occur as the body adjusts to the die-off process and responds to the increased load on the lymphatic system – particularly in cases of systemic and chronic conditions and/or severe infections.

    The most common Herxheimer reactions for users of Colloidal Silver are:

    • Headache
    • Flu-like symptoms
    • Itch and rashes
    • Flushes
    Usually, the reaction lasts a few days. In more severe cases, reactions can last a week or more.

    In most cases, the reaction tends to be mild and barely noticeable, but there are exceptions, particularly in cases of severe infection. Certain conditions, such as Multiple Sclerosis, Lyme Disease and other spirochetical illnesses can engender noticeable Herx Reactions as the disease-causing pathogens are killed off. Users of Colloidal Silver who take the product for Hepatitis may also experience die-off symptoms, such as headache. Those inhaling silver to treat lung and sinus infection may also feel immediately worse for a few hours or a day before starting to feel relief.

    Herx reactions vary widely, depending on many factors, including the general health of the individual, the condition being treated, the degree of toxicity that exists in the body, the frequency and dosage of Colloidal Silver taken, and the support the body is provided in eliminating the toxins as rapidly as possible. Method of use is also factor. For example, applications that allow concentrated dosages of Colloidal Silver to come in direct contact with the source of infection are more likely to result in a die-off reaction than oral use.

    Although this article focuses on the Herxheimer reaction, please keep in mind that not all users of Colloidal Silver will experience a Herx reaction. However, it is important to be aware of the possibility and to understand that it is a symptom of healing, so that Colloidal Silver users do not become discouraged if symptoms temporarily worsen and/or discontinue use of the product.

    Clarification

    Colloidal Silver does not cause the Herxheimer reaction. Colloidal Silver is non-toxic, and a healthy individual will notice no reaction at all to Colloidal Silver. However, if there is infection in the body, a Herxheimer reaction may result as the infection is killed off. The severity of the Herx reaction is often an indicator of just how much toxicity there was in the body to begin with and is an indicator of the effectiveness of the treatment. It is actually a sign that the body is restoring itself to good health.

    Time Frames

    There is differing data on the timing of a Herxheimer reaction. Some data indicates that it usually occurs between four and 24 hours from the onset of treatment. Others note that between Day 3 and Day 5 of a treatment program is often when the reaction is most noticeable. What appears to be most accurate is that reaction times -- and indeed whether there will be any reaction at all -- are strictly dependent on the individual being treated. Duration of the reaction also varies widely, from an hour or a few hours to days or even a week.

    What To Do In The Event of a Herxheimer Reaction

    If the reaction is mild enough that it can be borne without grave discomfort, the best approach is to continue treatment and assist the body in eliminating the toxins as quickly and as thoroughly as possible by the methods below.

    If the reaction is too severe, cutting back on the dosage or frequency of use can be very helpful in lessening symptoms but allowing the healing process to continue. Sometimes stopping for a day or so and then beginning again at a lesser dosage can allow for quick relief.

    The best assistance for the body is drinking plenty of distilled water (a half gallon a day is recommended).

    Other helpful suggestions include:

    • Getting plenty of sunshine
    • Minimizing exercise for the detox period
    • Keeping the organs of elimination (the bowels, lungs, skin, kidneys, lymph) functioning properly
    • Keeping the diet relatively pure during the detox period so that the body is not loaded with additional chemicals and toxins to eliminate while it is already working hard.
    Adding lemon to the water, taking cold press olive oil first thing in the morning, taking sea salt baths and/ or steam baths and saunas, plus liver and elimination system supports can also be helpful, though any herbal supplements should be kept to a minimum and should be very mild and gentle in nature.

    Conclusion

    The most important advice in relation to Colloidal Silver use and the Herxheimer reaction is to “bear with the process”. The reaction is usually over within a few days and is well worth the cleansing and healing results. Plus, it is a sure sign that the Colloidal Silver is doing its job and working to help restore your body to natural health!

    Warning: Any serious symptoms such as cardiac irregularity; breathing difficulties; chest, lung or throat constriction; significant swelling; or other severe symptoms should be given immediate medical attention.
     
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  17. PKovach

    PKovach New Member

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    Hey Guys! Found a nice non-electric distiller. It is a fraction of the cost of the others and it is universal.

    https://tinyurl.com/y9m65rcu

    Here is a good YouTube vidoe about it too...
     

    Attached Files:

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  18. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    This thread now has over 22,000 views. I hope that it has served to help clean up the abysmal swamp of conflicting methods of generating and evaluating the substance we call "colloidal silver." We have learned to differentiate between "ionic" (meaning single silver ions, positively charged) and "particulate" (meaning molecules containing any number of silver atoms, uncharged, up to the point of weighing too much to be kept in suspension in water).
    Anyone who has had the energy and patience to read all the posts in this thread should now have the knowledge necessary to make their colloidal silver from scratch. They will not need to buy any particular thing from any particular person, whomsoever, including yours truly. You need some pure distilled water. Buy yourself a water tester, TDS or EC, and measure the conductivity to be sure it is pure. By the purest silver, you can possibly get. Trust no one. Demand a detailed certificate of analysis from a recognized testing authority, detailed in parts per billion, nothing less. Don't be in a hurry. Time is on your side in the case of making quality colloidal silver. This fact does not appeal to those that are making it to sell to you. For them, time is money. Don't think that you have to stand there and watch it. If you keep the current low enough, it will take a long time before your water will get a yellow tinge, indicating that you have begun to generate larger particles than what you really want. A good 650 nm laser pointer shown through the solution will give you a good idea of the amount of particles and their size that you're generating long before the particles are large enough to give the solution color. That and an EC meter is all you need. You will find, with practice, that you will be able to generate very effective colloidal silver of up to 20 ppm reliably. This is better than anything commonly available.
    The preceding represented the state of the art of making colloidal silver when I started this thread. Some of the questions asked by readers of the thread started me wondering about the 20 to 25 PPM limit that we had reached the manual method. None of the automatic units claimed anything better and most claimed far less. In truth, the only automatic thing that these "automatic" units did was to shut off after a given amount of time or a given amount of conductivity of the water. The product they produced, in terms of ionic value, was never the same twice, as they readily admitted.
    I imagined that I was operating my 1/2 gallon per day Atlasnova generator but somehow, had the ability, every 1 millionth of a second, to measure the voltage across the electrodes. I also had the ability, at one-microsecond intervals, to vary the resistance and to operate the toggle switch, opening the circuit, or reversing the polarity.
    I designed and built a circuit using a microprocessor that enabled me to do this. I found that I was able to break the 25 PPM barrier that had long been established and accepted by the chemical fraternity worldwide for the solubility limit of silver. In April 2016 I announced this fact in post number 138. Having done this, I decided it was worthwhile to go ahead and turn this into a product that people can use to make truly advanced colloidal silver. It took a year to turn the prototype into a product that would reliably produce 50 ppm ionic colloidal silver. I would like to thank the forum members for inspiring me to do this. And special thanks to the brave souls who have bought the first of the CSG ultra's and contributed very constructive criticisms which I hope I have acted upon.

    I am sunk in the abysmal swamp where there is no foothold; I have reached the watery depths; the flood overwhelms me. (Psalm 69:3)
     
    Last edited: Nov 12, 2017
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  19. Thecrensh

    Thecrensh Gold Member Gold Chaser

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    I just read a report somewhere (can't remember where) that said this year's flu viruses are mutating too fast, and that the vaccine that was produced is going to be near worthless...
     
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  20. GOLDBRIX

    GOLDBRIX God,Donald Trump,most in GIM2 I Trust. OTHERS-meh Site Supporter Platinum Bling

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    Last month we had local health dept. announce they have confirmed the first cases of flu this season.

    Processing and filling all my bottles with EIS / CS, got the cool mist running in the kids bed room at night.
    " An Once of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure".
     
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  21. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    Ions, not particles, make silver toxic to bacteria

    Silver ions delivered by nanoparticles to bacteria promote lysis, the process by which cells break down and ultimately die, which makes silver nanoparticles a superior and widely used antibacterial agent. New research by Rice University found that silver ions, not the particles themselves, are toxic to bacteria. They also found that ligands in the vicinity of a bacteria can bind silver ions and prevent them from reaching their target. Credit: Zongming Xiu/Rice University.
    Rice University researchers have settled a long-standing controversy over the mechanism by which silver nanoparticles, the most widely used nanomaterial in the world, kill bacteria.
    Their work comes with a Nietzsche-esque warning: Use enough. If you don’t kill them, you make them stronger.
    Scientists have long known that silver ions, which flow from nanoparticles when oxidized, are deadly to bacteria. Silver nanoparticles are used just about everywhere, including in cosmetics, socks, food containers, detergents, sprays and a wide range of other products to stop the spread of germs.
    But scientists have also suspected silver nanoparticles themselves may be toxic to bacteria, particularly the smallest of them at about 3 nm. Not so, according to the Rice team that reported its results this month in the American Chemical Society journal Nano Letters.
    In fact, when the possibility of ionization is taken away from silver, the nanoparticles are practically benign in the presence of microbes, said Pedro Alvarez, George R. Brown Professor and chair of Rice’s Civil and Environmental Engineering Department.
    “You would be surprised how often people market things without a full mechanistic understanding of their function,” said Alvarez, who studies the fate of nanoparticles in the environment and their potential toxicity, particularly to humans. “The prefix ‘nano’ can be a double-edged sword. It can help you sell a product, and in other cases it might elicit concerns about potential unintended consequences.”
    He said the straightforward answer to the decade-old question is that the insoluble silver nanoparticles do not kill cells by direct contact. But soluble ions, when activated via oxidation in the vicinity of bacteria, do the job nicely.
    To figure that out, the researchers had to strip the particles of their powers. “Our original expectation was that the smaller a particle is, the greater the toxicity,” said Zongming Xiu, a Rice postdoctoral researcher and lead author of the paper. Xiu set out to test nanoparticles, both commercially available and custom-synthesized from 3 to 11 nm, to see whether there was a correlation between size and toxicity.
    “We could not get consistent results,” he said. “It was very frustrating and really weird.”
    Xiu decided to test nanoparticle toxicity in an anaerobic environment—that is, sealed inside a chamber with no exposure to oxygen—to control the silver ions’ release. He found that the filtered particles were a lot less toxic to microbes than silver ions.
    Working with the lab of Rice chemist Vicki Colvin, the team then synthesized silver nanoparticles inside the anaerobic chamber to eliminate any chance of oxidation. “We found the particles, even up to a concentration of 195 parts per million, were still not toxic to bacteria,” Xiu said. “But for the ionic silver, a concentration of about 15 parts per billion would kill all the bacteria present. That told us the particle is 7,665 times less toxic than the silver ions, indicating a negligible toxicity.”
    “The point of that experiment,” Alvarez said, “was to show that a lot of people were obtaining data that was confounded by a release of ions, which was occurring during exposure they perhaps weren’t aware of.”
    Alvarez suggested the team’s anaerobic method may be used to test many other kinds of metallic nanoparticles for toxicity and could help fine-tune the antibacterial qualities of silver particles. In their tests, the Rice researchers also found evidence of hormesis; E. coli became stimulated by silver ions when they encountered doses too small to kill them.
    “Ultimately, we want to control the rate of (ion) release to obtain the desired concentrations that just do the job,” Alvarez said. “You don’t want to overshoot and overload the environment with toxic ions while depleting silver, which is a noble metal, a valuable resource—and a somewhat expensive disinfectant. But you don’t want to undershoot, either.”
    He said the finding should shift the debate over the size, shape and coating of silver nanoparticles. “Of course they matter,” Alvarez said, “but only indirectly, as far as these variables affect the dissolution rate of the ions. The key determinant of toxicity is the silver ions. So the focus should be on mass-transfer processes and controlled-release mechanisms.”
    “These findings suggest that the antibacterial application of silver nanoparticles could be enhanced and environmental impacts could be mitigated by modulating the ion release rate, for example, through responsive polymer coatings,” Xiu said.
    Co-authors of the paper are postdoctoral researcher Qingbo Zhang and graduate student Hema Puppala, both in the lab of Colvin, Rice’s Kenneth S. Pitzer-Schlumberger Professor of Chemistry, a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and vice provost for research.
    The work was supported by a joint U.S.-U.K. research program administered by the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.K.’s Natural Environment Research Council.

    Negligible Particle-Specific Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles

    Source: Rice University
     
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  22. Weatherman

    Weatherman In GIM since 2006 Gold Chaser Site Supporter

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    15 ppB??!! That says a normal solution of 15 ppM silver ions could be diluted by a factor of 1,000 and still be 100% effective!

    In the link, the researchers estimated the concentration that actually "stimulates" bad bacteria instead of killing them to be "12–31% of the minimum lethal concentration", so I assume they are talking about less than 5 ppB of silver ions. I cannot imagine that any of us working with CS would ever produce concentrations that low.
     
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  23. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    There are approximately 160 ounces of blood in the human body. If we managed to take an ounce of let's say 10 ppm ionic and managed to absorb it sublingually, we can assume that maybe 20% of that (WAG) would find its way as silver ions into our bloodstream. This would relate to 10 ppb in relation to an experiment in a petri dish.
    OR, am I missing something.?
     
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  24. abeland1

    abeland1 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    unnamed.jpg
    E. coli having a party
    The growing threat of antibiotic resistance has sparked calls to use antibiotics more responsibly to curb the spread of drug-resistant bacteria. The idea: If we reduce antibiotic use, we could reduce the resistance that’s been naturally selected for over time.
    But new research published Wednesday in Nature Communications finds that isn’t always the case.
    Biomedical researcher Allison Lopatkin of Duke made the discovery.
    "How did you study the spread of antibiotic resistance between bacteria?"
    We looked at something called horizontal gene transfer, the primary way that new bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance genes. One of the main methods is gene transfer is called conjugation. It’s literally just two cells that knock into one another and one transfers the DNA. This DNA is often located these really transferable elements called plasmids. We looked at if we totally remove antibiotics, will the resistance gene on these plasmids disappear? If there’s an antibiotic present, the cell with the plasmid grows better because it can resist the antibiotic. But without antibiotics present, cells without plasmid often reproduce faster, because there’s less of a burden on them. Will bacteria take advantage of that fact?
    What we saw is the plasmids are transferable through this process of conjugation and even though those cells are growing slower, the resistance doesn’t go anywhere. The plasmid can be transferred so fast that even for really, really costly plasmids, we can remove antibiotics entirely and the resistance will still exist. It’s continuously infecting new cells. That’s a really concerning conclusion.
     

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