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This Interview Was Conducted on an Anonymous, DIY Cell Phone Network

Discussion in 'Topical Discussions (In Depth)' started by Goldhedge, Dec 2, 2017.



  1. Goldhedge

    Goldhedge Moderator Site Mgr Site Supporter

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    This Interview Was Conducted on an Anonymous, DIY Cell Phone Network

    Sopranica is a surveillance-free cellular network built by volunteers from around the world. It’s easy to use and free to set up.


    [​IMG]
    Image: Shutterstock

    Most people in the United States—and increasingly, around the world—carry the most sophisticated surveillance devices ever created in their pockets day in and day out. Although smartphones have enabled governments and corporations to track our movements and monitor our conversations with unprecedented ease, these devices are also an incredibly useful personal tool and have become an indispensable part of modern life.

    It’s a crappy trade off, but evidently one that most of us seem OK with. But Denver Gingerich, a programmer based in New York City, doesn’t see why we can’t have our smartphones and our privacy, too.

    For the past few years, Gingerich has been laying the groundwork for Sopranica, an open source, DIY cell network that allows smartphone owners to make calls, send texts and eventually browse the internet with total anonymity.

    In January, Gingerich published the code for the first part of Sopranica called JMP. This is essentially a way of using a secure instant messaging protocol called XMPP, better known as Jabber, to communicate over voice and text from an anonymous phone number. JMP is the first phase of the Sopranica network.

    The next phase—called WOM—will create the physical infrastructure for the cell network with a community radio network. This will essentially involve people hosting small, inexpensive radio devices in their home that plug into their routers to provide internet access points to Sopranica users in the area.

    In October, Gingerich presented the first part of his plan for Sopranica at Radical Networks, an annual conference celebrating creative and subversive approaches to the Internet. Gingerich said that he and 15 others have been collaborating in a chatroom to continue developing the network since its initial launch earlier this year.

    After hearing about Sopranica during this presentation, I was eager to sign up for the cell network and give it a try.

    Getting set up with JMP is easy. First, you need to create a free and anonymous Jabber ID, which is like an email address. I had already created a Jabber ID with the Chaos Computer Club (a German hacking group), but there are a lot of other servers you can register with as well. The only difference will be the web address in your Jabber ID will be different—for example, motherboard@jabber.ccc.de or motherboard@xmpp.jp.

    Next, you need to install a Jabber app on your phone. I use Android and opted for Xabber, but again, there are plenty of options to choose from (Conversations is a good choice if you want to use Sopranica for picture messaging, for instance). You’ll also need to install a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) app, which allows your phone to make calls and send texts over the internet instead of the regular cellular network. For Android users, the best choice is probably CSipSimple and for iPhones your best bet is Linphone.

    Finally, it’s time to get your phone number. If you navigate to Sopranica’s JMP website, there is a list of numbers at the bottom. These phone numbers are generated by Sopranica’s Voice Over IP (VOIP) provider which provides talk and text services over the internet. Click whichever number you want to be your new number on the Sopranica network and enter your Jabber ID. A confirmation code should be sent to your phone and will appear in your Jabber app.

    Once you’ve entered this code, you’re ready to use your new, anonymous number. To do this, use your SIP app and send a text or dial a number just like you would otherwise. This communication will be made through your new Sopranica number, rather than whichever cell carrier you normally use.

    In many ways, JMP is kind of like getting a free VOIP number with Google Voice and then using that number to register for an account on the encrypted messaging platform Signal.

    The downside of this, of course, is that the VOIP number you get from Google is registered under your name with Google, so even if the people who you communicate with using that number can’t trace it to you, Google can. On the other hand, all aspects of JMP are anonymous—neither the Jabber ID nor the JMP phone number require identifying information to register.

    Once I had set up JMP on my phone, the first thing I did was use it to call Gingerich to learn more about how Sopranica works and about his plans for the network’s future.

    Motherboard: What’s the simplest way to describe Sopranica?

    Denver Gingerich: Sopranica is a project intended to replace all aspects of the existing cell phone network with their freedom-respecting equivalents. Taking out all the baseband firmware on the cellphone, the towers that track your location, the payment methods that track who you are and who owns the number, and replacing it so we can have the same functionality without having to give up all the privacy that we have to give up right now. At a high level, it’s about running community networks instead of having companies control the cell towers that we connect to.

    How does JMP protect against surveillance?

    A conventional way of tracking people is with their phone numbers. So the government can—maybe with a warrant, maybe they don't need one—ask the cell carrier to tell them where the person who has this phone number happens to be right now. If you're communicating with someone using your JMP number, your cell carrier doesn't actually know what your JMP number is because that's going over data and it's encrypted. So they don't know that that communication is happening.

    Does JMP only work on the cellular network?

    You can use JMP today without using a cell carrier at all if you're fine using your phone and texting when you're in range of Wi-Fi and get rid of all that tracking. For some people that would be fine, they spend most of their time at home or work. But other people that are out a lot more that might not work as well for them. That's why we have this WOM component that would give you that service even when you're not near Wi-Fi.

    At Radical Networks, you described WOM gateways as the physical infrastructure for the Sopranica network. So these are essentially cell towers that provide access to the internet for people using the Sopranica network?

    Hosting a WOM gateway would just be buying a radio device and plugging it into your router. Ideally you'd position this radio somewhere where it can see a lot of the outside. Hopefully on the exterior of whatever building you’re in, but if not then by a window or something. You could operate it as a repeater if you wanted to, in which case you wouldn't have to plug it into your router, but ideally you'd plug it into your router so that it would be able to provide that internet connection to people who connect to the WOM node, which would then be a gateway.


    But you’d also want people on the Sopranica network to mesh between their phones to route data locally, too?

    The idea is to have a lot of infrastructure that is fixed, but also having mesh in the phones themselves so that we can extend the range when possible.

    Do these radio units for WOM nodes exist yet?

    Right now it's just local and a few prototypes at this point. We don't really have all the protocols we'll be using long term all solidified yet. I’ve been doing testing on two radios. They are fairly simple boards with an Arduino chip and a 900 MHz (radio) chip. They also have this nice antenna connector so you can get some decent range on them.

    Once you’re done testing these units, how much do you anticipate them costing if someone wanted to buy one and run a Sopranica node?

    It would be less than $100.

    [​IMG]
    A ‘Freakduino’ 900MHz wireless unit that Gingerich is using to test the WOM protocols. Image: FreakLabs

    If total strangers are connecting to Sopranica WOM access points through people’s personal routers at home, won’t that also make them vulnerable to network attacks on their personal home network?

    That is a concern. There are a few ways that we're looking into solving that. That's partly why the protocol stack isn't solidified yet. One of the major ways that we're considering doing that is through Cjdns. That kind of provides a layer on top of IP that allows you to communicate with trusted neighbors and encrypting your data in that way. Ideally, forcing people onto Cjdns so that they can't see anything outside of this.

    You also spoke a bit at Radical Networks about developing SIM cards specifically for the Sopranica network. How’s that going?

    I've read a lot of information about how to program a SIM card, but a lot of it is kind of gated on having access to certain keys you'd only get from your carrier. So until I find someone who knows a lot about how to do this, it's the sort of thing where it's hard to make a lot of progress. The main option I would see for this is either becoming a MVNO (mobile virtual network operator) to issue your own SIM cards with your own information and keys on them. The other aspect would be to try to use a little thin strip that has some electronics on it that you literally stick onto your SIM card and it intercepts a lot of the stuff going on between your SIM card and your phone.

    Besides finalizing the protocols for the WOM nodes, what’s the biggest challenge for Sopranica going forward?

    Getting people to be motivated to switch away from their existing cell carriers. I think it will be hard to convince average people to move away from the cell carriers they're using until WOM is at a fairly mature point. A big part of it is because the cell carriers have significant coverage and substantial bandwidth. That's one of the long term things that will be tricky for Sopranica generally: competing with the multi-megabit speeds of most carriers.

    Motherboard is empowering people to build community-owned broadband networks. For regular updates, subscribe to this newsletter.


    https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/...etwork-diy-anonymous?utm_campaign=sharebutton
     
  2. Goldhedge

    Goldhedge Moderator Site Mgr Site Supporter

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    similar?



    Kim Dotcom Announces Update on His Superweapon in the War Against Internet Censorship
    [​IMG]
    ByConnor Chue-Sang
    Posted on

    Megaupload founder Kim Dotcom has vowed to build an “indestructible, uncontrollable & encrypted” internet that protects people that will be “run by the people for the people.”

    Dotcom, who is wanted in the United States for alleged illegal file sharing, promises to build his version of the internet with privacy and freedom in mind.

    MegaNet, Dotcom assured in 2015, will be free from censorship, spying, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, and hacking.

    Kim Dotcom
    ✔@KimDotcom

    #MegaNet is non-IP based. No more DDoS or hacking. No more censorship. No more spying. All your mobile phones become an encrypted network.

    2:14 PM - Feb 16, 2015

    In his 2015 tweet regarding MegaNet, Dotcom explained that his vision of an alternative internet will mean users no longer have an Internet Protocol (IP) address, the numerical label that every device, which is connected to the internet, uses. An IP address can be used to locate a device, as well as identify its user.

    RT reports that Dotcom has described his planned version of the internet as an “indestructible, uncontrollable & encrypted” alternative.

    Kim Dotcom
    ✔@KimDotcom


    The current corporate Internet will be replaced by a better Internet, running on the idle capacity of hundreds of millions of mobile devices. Run by the people for the people. Breaking net-neutrality will only accelerate the adoption of a new network. But first K.im and Bitcache.

    7:52 PM - Nov 21, 2017

    “I have been working on this for a long time. Mobile networks and devices will be ready for this in four-five years,” he added.

    Dotcom’s most recent tweet comes in the wake of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) plans to kill net neutrality next month. In 2015, the FCC announced the “open internet order” which prohibited companies from prioritizing certain services in exchange for money, as well as restricting legal internet use.

    Ajit Pai, the chairman of the FCC, believes the repeal of net neutrality will promote more internet innovation and investment.

    “This burdensome regulation has failed consumers and businesses alike,” Pai said in an op-ed for the Wall Street Journal. “In the two years after the FCC’s decision, broadband network investment dropped more than 5.6 percent – the first time a decline has happened outside of a recession.”

    “If the current rules are left in place, millions of Americans who are on the wrong side of the digital divide would have to wait years to get more broadband,” Pai added.

    One prominent figure opposed to the destruction of net neutrality is Julian Assange.

    The WikiLeaks publisher has warned President Trump that his opponents “control most internet companies.”

    “Without neutrality, they can make your tweets load slowly, CNN load fast and infest everyone’s phones with their ads. Careful,” Assange said in a tweet.

    Featured Image Via Wikimedia Commons/Robert O’Neill

    Sources: RT
     
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  3. michael59

    michael59 heads up-butts down Site Supporter ++ Platinum Bling

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    So I hook up my WOM to my router. And, who feeds my router?

    Anywhoo, they were trying this before but they were going phone to phone broadcasting as in you make a call home and I happen to be in the way so my phone boosts your signal thingy.

    I am thinking that when they slow down the net and cause a traffic jam then I am going to put up 4 repeaters, yep one for each side of the house.
     
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  4. gringott

    gringott Killed then Resurrected Midas Member Site Supporter

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    When I first heard of packet radio way back in the day [pre-internet, while modems were in use aka BBS], I thought it would be the method to communicate and send data for free. At the time however it was just too slow for any real transfers. Looks like cell technology will someday be the answer. Of course, as to using the internet, who will be the gateway is the sticker. We can mesh our wireless and interface our cellphones but in the end we will need a way to the internet, which is paid for by somebody of course. I could see hooking up and giving access as long as there is a QoS function that scales back the free user if I need the bandwidth.

    I've got a few phones sitting around here, I may try the setup as in the OP.
     
  5. bb28

    bb28 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    No, it is not anonymous at all so long as it runs on Android and the public internet. They just (potentially) eliminated the cell carrier spying on them, you still have the Google people and the .gov watching.

    In order for this to work, we need real wireless mesh networks based on Linux devices. That is the only way you will remove all of the spying.

    Not necessarily, we could create mesh networks that are local internets and give an option for gateways to global internets. The understanding would be any data transmitted on a global internet would be private, while your local internet/intranet would be more private.

    bb
     
  6. gringott

    gringott Killed then Resurrected Midas Member Site Supporter

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    Let me know where I can get a gateway to a global internet for free. Other than Starbux free wifi etc. They [the business] still pay.
     
  7. Bigjon

    Bigjon Silver Member Silver Miner Site Supporter ++

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    https://www.lineageos.org/

    Kick android and google to the curb.


    https://wiki.lineageos.org/

    Welcome to the LineageOS wiki!
    For users
    Get LineageOS!
    Report bugs!
    For everyone
    Contribute to the wiki!
    This wiki is powered by Jekyll.

    Build for your device!
    • Every officially-supported device has a comprehensive set of build instructions. Simply choose your device from our list of supported devices to get started.
    How-tos!
    We even have a nice list of how-tos, for inquisitive souls.

    For developers
    Contribute!
    • To contribute, you’ll need to be able to produce builds for your device. Pick your device from our list of supported devices to get started.
    • Once you’re successfully running your own build, you can begin to make your changes. All the apps included in LineageOS can be found in packages/apps, and core parts of the system can be found in frameworks/base.
    • Once you’ve finished making your change, simply follow our guide on submitting to Gerrit.
    Submit your port!
    • If you unofficially maintain a device, and think it’s good enough to go live, follow our instructions on submitting a port. One of our developer relations staff will reach out to you, and we’ll work to get the ball rolling on official builds for your device.
    You can view all current pages here.


    [​IMG]
    © 2016 - 2017 The LineageOS Project
    Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.
    Site last generated: Nov 27, 2017
     
    Last edited: Dec 2, 2017
  8. bb28

    bb28 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    Yes, I figured. I was just speculating if there was a wireless mesh network someone could have a paid connection and opt to share it out with other people. But, yes it would still be a paid connection by somebody.

    bb
     
  9. Bigjon

    Bigjon Silver Member Silver Miner Site Supporter ++

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    https://www.techrepublic.com/blog/five-apps/five-apps-for-vnc-remote-desktop-access-on-windows/

    Convert an Android Device to Linux


    [​IMG]
    Linux on a Droid
    By
    Dmitri Popov
    If you want to install Linux on an Android device, you have several options. We examine some of the possibilities.

    Installing a regular Linux distribution on an Android device opens a whole new world of possibilities. You can turn your Android device into a full-blown Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP server and run web-based applications on it, install and use your favorite Linux tools, and even run a graphical desktop environment. In short, having a Linux distro on an Android device can come in handy in many situations. You can install Linux on an Android device in several ways, and I’ll look at some of the available options.

    [​IMG]Figure 1: KBOX is a miniature Linux distribution that doesn’t require rooting.
    KBOX: No Root Required

    In many cases, installing Linux on Android usually means going through the rigmarole of rooting the Android system with the risk of bricking your Android device. If you don’t find this idea all that appealing, then you might appreciate KBOX. This miniature single-user Linux distribution is integrated directly into a terminal emulator, and it can be installed on non-rooted Android devices (Figure 1).

    KBOX is not available in the Google Play Store, so you have to download the APK package from the project’s website and install it manually. By the way, the author of KBOX provides not only the ready-to-use package but also some technical descriptions of KBOX’s inner workings.

    KBOX comes with an assortment of BusyBox utilities (find, grep, tar, vi, etc.), an SSH server and client, and the scp tool. A handful of other packages are available as separate downloads, including vim and rsync. Rsync can act both as a client and server. Installing packages on KBOX is done using the dpkg tool. To install, for example, the rsync package, grab it from the project’s website and use the following command:

    dpkg -i /sdcard/Download/rsync_3.0.8_kbox.deb
    Obviously, KBOX is not a replacement for a full-blown Linux distribution, but it can be useful in certain situations. If you install rsync, for example, you can use this powerful and flexible tool to back up files on your Android device to a remote server, and thanks to the supplied SSH server, you can access your Android device via an SSH connection.

    Going the chroot Root: Linux Deploy

    Although KBOX offers a straightforward way to install Linux on an Android device, you might find it too limited for your needs. In this case, you should consider installing a regular Linux distribution, but to do this, you must root your Android device first. The exact rooting procedure depends on your particular Android device, and it can be tricky at times. However, plenty of rooting guides are available online to help you along the way.

    When it comes to installing Linux on a rooted Android device, one option is Linux Deploy. This open source app offers an easy way to install and run a supported Linux distribution in a chroot environment, which is basically a special directory that acts as a temporary root directory. Because the root directory is the top of the filesystem hierarchy, applications running in the chroot environment don’t access directories higher up than the root directory. In other words, chroot creates an isolated environment that doesn’t interfere with the rest of the system. The good news is that Linux Deploy hides all the gory technical details behind a user-friendly interface, so you don’t need to know all the nitty-gritty to be able to install and run Linux on your rooted Android device.

    Before you proceed with installing Linux on Android using Linux Deploy, you need to install two additional apps on your device: a terminal emulator and a VNC client. Although several terminal emulator and VNC client apps are available in the Google Play Store, you can’t go wrong with VX ConnectBot and MultiVNC. Both are capable open source apps available free of charge.

    To install one of the supported Linux distributions using Linux Deploy, launch the app, and tap the Properties button. The Properties window contains a list of configurable options. Start by choosing the desired Linux distribution from the Distribution list in the Deploy section. Linux Deploy supports many popular distros, including Debian, Ubuntu, Arch Linux, Fedora, and openSUSE. For certain distributions, you can also select a specific version. Choose Debian, for example, and you can pick the desired version (stable, testing, unstable, etc.) in the Distribution suite list.

    By default, Linux Deploy uses a mirror based in Russia, but you can specify a mirror closer to you by editing the Mirror URL setting. If you are installing Debian, you can find a list of mirrors online. Pick the mirror closest to you and enter its URL as follows:

    http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian
    [​IMG]Figure 2: Specifying installation settings in Linux Deploy.
    Linux Deploy can install Linux into an image file, a specific folder, or a separate partition, and you can choose the desired option in the Installation type list. In most cases, installing Linux as a single image file makes most sense, especially on devices that don’t support additional storage. If your Android device has an SD card slot, you can install Linux on a storage card or use just a partition on the card for that purpose.

    You can choose the desired installation option from the Installation type list (Figure 2). If needed, you can also use the appropriate options to change the default installation path, specify the desired image size, choose the filesystem, and change the default android username.

    Linux Deploy lets you install a graphical desktop environment, too, and the app supports several popular graphical desktops, including LXDE, Xfce, Gnome, and KDE. To install a desktop environment, pick the desired desktop from the Desktop environment list and enable the Install GUIoption.

    The next stop is the Startup section. To start, make sure the SSH option is enabled; otherwise, you won’t be able to connect to the running Linux instance. If you chose to install a graphical desktop environment, you will have to enable the VNC option as well, so you can connect to the desktop using a VNC client app. Next, scroll down to the VNC section and configure the VNC settings, such as color depth and resolution as well as desktop dimensions.

    Once you’re done tweaking settings and specifying options, you can tap the Install item and wait until Linux Deploy finishes the installation (Figure 3).

    [​IMG]Figure 3: The installation procession in Linux Deploy is completely automated.
    When the installation operation is completed, you should see the following status message:

    <<< end: install
    Then, tap the Start button to boot the installed Linux distro. Note the IP address of the running Linux instance and launch the terminal emulator app (Figure 4).

    [​IMG]Figure 4: Establish an SSH connection in the terminal emulator with your username and the IP address of the Linux instance.
    Establish an SSH connection to the running Linux instance using its IP address and the default android username (or the username you specified in the Properties window). When prompted, enter the default changeme password.

    The first thing you might want to do is change the default passwords. Issue the passwd command to change the user password and run sudo passwd root to assign root password. Accessing the graphical desktop environment is equally easy: Launch the VNC client app and connect to the running VNC server using the default changeme password (Figures 5 and 6).

    [​IMG]Figure 5: You can access the graphical desktop using a VNC client directly on Android ...
    [​IMG]Figure 6: ... or from a remote machine (in this case, a notebook with Kubuntu using the KRDC client).
    Limbo PC Emulator

    Limbo PC Emulator provides yet another way to run Linux on an Android device. This little app is a port of the popular Qemu emulator, and it allows you to run a handful of lightweight Linux distributions. Before you give Limbo a try, be aware that it’s not particularly fast. This is not a big surprise, considering that it emulates the x86 architecture on the ARM-based platform. Limbo’s sluggishness is one of the reasons why you should use it with a nimble Linux distribution like Damn Small Linux and Debian sans a graphical desktop environment. On the positive side, running Linux inside Limbo PC Emulator doesn’t require rooting, and the app is very straightforward to use.

    Start by downloading the ISO image or the HDD file of the desired Linux distro. You can find the list of supported distros and links to ISO images and HDD files on the project’s website. Launch the Limbo app on the Android device, choose New from the Load VM drop-down list, and give the new virtual machine (VM) a name (Figure 7).

    [​IMG]Figure 7: Configuring a virtual machine in Limbo.
    Assuming you want to boot the VM from an ISO image, you can use the CDROM option to select the downloaded .iso file. Use the Hard Disk A option to create an empty hard disk image for use with the VM. Then, select User from the Network Configuration drop-down list to enable networking in the NAT mode. Finally, you can enable the External VNC option if you want to access the graphical desktop from a remote machine via VNC. Next, tap the Start button to launch the created VM.

    Although Limbo is relatively slow, the app has two features that can improve the emulator’s performance. Enabling the High Priority option can speed up the VM, but it can also make the Android device less responsive. A feature that lets you save the VM state won’t directly improve the performance, but it can help to avoid lengthy boot sequences by saving the VM in its current state. Note that this feature requires a hard disk file. Additionally, the project’s website offers a few tips on improving the performance of specific distros. For example, you can use the following boot parameters:

    boot> dsl toram noacpi noapm noscsi dma
    to speed up Damn Small Linux (Figure 8).

    [​IMG]Figure 8: Running Damn Small Linux in Limbo.
    Final Word

    The apps I’ve described are not your only options for running Linux on an Android device. The Complete Linux Installer and Linux Installer apps, for example, let you install a Linux distribution on a rooted Android device. If you own a Google Nexus 7 device, you can replace Android with Ubuntu by following the instructions on the Ubuntu wiki. The described solutions have their advantages and drawbacks, but because they are all available free of charge, you can try them all and pick the one that best fits your needs.

    The Author

    Dmitri Popov has been writing exclusively about Linux and open source software for many years, and his articles have appeared in Danish, British, US, German, Spanish, and Russian magazines and websites. Dmitri is an amateur photographer, and he writes about open source photography tools on his Scribbles and Snaps blog at scribblesandsnaps.com.

    Related content
     
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  10. bb28

    bb28 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    Right, but running Linux in an emulator or virtual environment will not give you any additional privacy since the host operating system will still have access to the same memory and data space. You are just running Linux on Android. This is a solution for a developer who wants to test programming, not a solution to gain any additional privacy.

    bb
     
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  11. keef

    keef Пальто Crude Platinum Bling

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    Its annoying enough to listen to people's Cell Phone conversations in public.

    You couldn't pay me enough to have to read the transcripts.
     
  12. Bigjon

    Bigjon Silver Member Silver Miner Site Supporter ++

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    Do you have any suggestions on how to replace the android system?
     
  13. bb28

    bb28 Silver Member Silver Miner

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    That is not exactly easy to do. If you just wanted a command line interface (CLI), you could probably install a bunch of distros with some modification.

    The problem is when you want the entire cell phone to work -- that includes multiple touch sensors, gyrometers, multiple microphones, front and back camera, GPS, etc. all in one integrated package and the OS and software has to work with your exact device. Computers are pretty generic now, but smartphones have all the software customized for the exact phone. This drives up the cost to build a single phone and gives an incentive for big business to subsidize it by tracking you and for them to hype large distribution releases so they can spread the costs among more subscribers.

    This is very difficult to achieve for Linux because it is probably only going to get a minority of marketshare and often you will end up paying a lot more for a phone with lower-quality specs and slightly buggy software. My understanding is that there were a tiny number of Linux phones selling in Europe on GSM that could theoretically be activated in the US with a GSM network, but they would only reach 2G data speeds (i.e. slightly faster than dial-up).

    You can look into using an Ubuntu touch on a custom install, but my understanding is that these are all in beta testing and not really ready for primetime. They keep building Ubuntu touch on new phones but most of the projects end up dying because there is not enough money for the developers to keep pace with the lifetime of the phone.

    The best option for a Linux phone would be something like a Fairphone - https://www.fairphone.com/en/ but once again, most of the Linux phone development is geared towards the GSM market in Europe because the US has too many standards.

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