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Astronomers just saw farther back in time than they ever have before

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Astronomers just saw farther back in time than they ever have before
1 / 19
BBbyiSL.img

The Washington Post
Sarah Kaplan 4 hrs ago


BBqkvQZ.img
© NASA/ESA handout via Reuters Hubble Space Telescope image shows the Galaxy GN-z11, shown in the inset, 13.4 billion years away and as it was just 400 million years after the Big Bang when the universe was only three percent of its current age, in this image released by NASA on March 3, 2016.

To look through the lens of a telescope is to peer back in time.

The light we view through it has spent hundreds, millions, even billions of years crossing the vastness of space to reach us, carrying with it images of things that happened long ago.

On Thursday, astronomers at the Hubble Space Telescope announced that they’d seen back farther than they ever have before, to a galaxy 13.4 billion light years away in a time when the universe was just past its infancy.

The finding shattered what’s known as the “cosmic distance record,” illuminating a point in time that scientists once thought could never be seen with current technology.

Explore the wonders of the Solar System with Star Chart, the definitive star gazing and astronomy app. From our own star - the Sun, to the moons of Jupiter and rings of Saturn, Star Chart gives you a virtual window into the visible universe. With over 4 million installs Star Chart is used by educators, amateur astronomers, parents, children and curious minds alike. Make the most of your powerful Windows 8 Augmented Reality enabled device and hold it up to the sky. Star Chart will tell you exactly what you are looking at! Augmented Reality (AR) mode is available on tablets, laptops & devices with accelerometer and digital magnetometer sensors. Alternatively, explore the universe from the comfort of your desktop to learn about the wonders of our solar system and beyond. Visit the planets, explore their rings and moons, learn about the constellations, discover majestic Messier objects, and travel both forwards and backwards in time. Using state of the art GPS technology, an accurate 3D universe and the latest high-tech sensor functionality, Star Chart calculates – in real time - the current location of every star, planet and moon visible from Earth and shows you precisely where they are; even in broad daylight! Want to know what that bright star is called? Point your AR device at it – you might just find out it’s a planet! Want to know how the night sky appears to people on the other side of the earth? Well just point your AR device down! Want to know where your star sign is in the sky? Star Chart will tell you all this and much more. So point your Windows 8 AR device at the sky and see what's out there! ------------ Escape Velocity and Escapist Games will update Star Chart regularly, so please send us your feedback and feature requests to scwin@escapistgames.com Visit the Star Chart website: www.starchart.info Like us on Facebook: www.facebook.com/StarChart Follow Star Chart on Twitter: StarChartApp - twitter.com/StarChartApp

Get the app
“We’ve taken a major step back in time, beyond what we’d ever expected to be able to do with Hubble,” Yale University astrophysicist Pascal Oesch, the lead author of the study, said in a statement.

The galaxy, unpoetically named GN-z11, appears as an unremarkable, fuzzy, dark red splotch when it’s magnified from an image taken by the Hubble Telescope. But by measuring a phenomenon known as redshift, Oesch and his colleagues were able to look back in time to when the galaxy was brilliantly blue and incredibly hot, bursting with brand new stars that formed at a frenetic rate.

“It really is star bursting,” study co-author Gabriel Brammer, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute, told the Associated Press.

Redshift explains GN-z11’s dull crimson coloring: Because the universe is expanding, every object we see through a telescope is actually moving away from us. And as they move, the waves of light they emit stretch out, shifting in color from blue, which has a relatively short wavelength, down to red, whose waves are long. The phenomenon isn’t so different from the way the sound of a train deepens as it chugs away from the listener.

By measuring the degree of redshift, scientists can figure out how long light has been traveling to us through space, and thereby how long ago the thing that they’re looking at existed. Previously, the highest redshift number assigned to a galaxy was 8.68 — meaning it existed some 13.2 billion years in the past.

GN-z11’s redshift number is 11.1.

This means that the galaxy was around just 400 million years after the Big Bang — no time at all, in cosmic terms — to a period that is 97 percent of the way to the universe’s very beginnings.

(A note on time and distance: Light years are a measure of distance — how far light can travel in a year. But cases like this, they are an indicator of age. Since the light from GN-z11 has traveled 13.4 billion years to reach us, that means it’s been traveling for 13.4 billion years, so its source must be 13.4 billion years old.)

BBqkmfp.img
© NASA, ESA, and A. Feild
The universe was still a toddler at that stage — hazy, cold and shrouded in a fog of hydrogen gas.

But the stars in GN-z11 and other galaxies like it were fast-growing giants that would have swiftly heated things up, “frying” the gas around them, the scientists told the BBC. And new ones were popping out all the time; GN-z11 formed stars at a rate 20 times faster than our own Milky Way.

For a brief time, they burned brilliantly. And then they burned out.

The researchers say that the existence of such a hot and active galaxy shows how little they know about the universe’s toddler years. Marijn Franx, a co-author from the University of Leiden, noted in the statement that previous research suggested that such a thing wasn’t possible.

How exactly the brilliant GN-z11 was created “remains somewhat of a mystery for now,” added his colleague Ivo Labbe.

There is some skepticism about GN-z11’s age from other scientists. Speaking to the AP, Richard Ellis, an astronomer at the European Southern Observatory who found the previous record-holder for farthest galaxy ever seen, noted that the astronomers studied a spectrum of light that’s seen as less reliable.

Ellis wrote in an email that those light signatures are “noisier and harder to interpret,” and that for GN-z11 to be visible it would have to be three times brighter than typical galaxies.

Oesch responded that his team made sure “this was as clean as possible a measurement,” and noted that the technique he used is now becoming standard.

This will probably stand as one of Hubble’s last big accomplishments and almost certainly its most distant find. The decades-old behemoth hasn’t been repaired since 2009, and will likely be retired after NASA launches its new space telescope, the James Webb, in 2018.

Exactly how that happens is still up in the air, so to speak. The telescope could be booted into a higher “parking orbit,” where it will float for centuries as yet another piece of space junk. Or it might be summoned back to Earth via a robotic craft, which would guide it on a fiery descent into the Pacific Ocean.

But both options are still years away. If anything, Oesch said, the new find shows that after more than two decades aloft, Hubble has still got it.

“Hubble has proven once again, even after almost 26 years in space, just how special it is,” he told the BBC. “When the telescope was launched we were investigating galaxies a little over half-way back in cosmic history. Now, we’re going 97 percent of the way back. It really is a tremendous achievement.”

http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/techn...n-they-ever-have-before/ar-BBqkG9A?li=BBnb7Kz
 

GOLD DUCK

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Astronomers just saw farther back in time than they ever have before
1 / 19
BBbyiSL.img

The Washington Post
Sarah Kaplan 4 hrs ago


BBqkvQZ.img
© NASA/ESA handout via Reuters Hubble Space Telescope image shows the Galaxy GN-z11, shown in the inset, 13.4 billion years away and as it was just 400 million years after the Big Bang when the universe was only three percent of its current age, in this image released by NASA on March 3, 2016.

To look through the lens of a telescope is to peer back in time.

The light we view through it has spent hundreds, millions, even billions of years crossing the vastness of space to reach us, carrying with it images of things that happened long ago.

On Thursday, astronomers at the Hubble Space Telescope announced that they’d seen back farther than they ever have before, to a galaxy 13.4 billion light years away in a time when the universe was just past its infancy.

The finding shattered what’s known as the “cosmic distance record,” illuminating a point in time that scientists once thought could never be seen with current technology.

Explore the wonders of the Solar System with Star Chart, the definitive star gazing and astronomy app. From our own star - the Sun, to the moons of Jupiter and rings of Saturn, Star Chart gives you a virtual window into the visible universe. With over 4 million installs Star Chart is used by educators, amateur astronomers, parents, children and curious minds alike. Make the most of your powerful Windows 8 Augmented Reality enabled device and hold it up to the sky. Star Chart will tell you exactly what you are looking at! Augmented Reality (AR) mode is available on tablets, laptops & devices with accelerometer and digital magnetometer sensors. Alternatively, explore the universe from the comfort of your desktop to learn about the wonders of our solar system and beyond. Visit the planets, explore their rings and moons, learn about the constellations, discover majestic Messier objects, and travel both forwards and backwards in time. Using state of the art GPS technology, an accurate 3D universe and the latest high-tech sensor functionality, Star Chart calculates – in real time - the current location of every star, planet and moon visible from Earth and shows you precisely where they are; even in broad daylight! Want to know what that bright star is called? Point your AR device at it – you might just find out it’s a planet! Want to know how the night sky appears to people on the other side of the earth? Well just point your AR device down! Want to know where your star sign is in the sky? Star Chart will tell you all this and much more. So point your Windows 8 AR device at the sky and see what's out there! ------------ Escape Velocity and Escapist Games will update Star Chart regularly, so please send us your feedback and feature requests to scwin@escapistgames.com Visit the Star Chart website: www.starchart.info Like us on Facebook: www.facebook.com/StarChart Follow Star Chart on Twitter: StarChartApp - twitter.com/StarChartApp

Get the app
“We’ve taken a major step back in time, beyond what we’d ever expected to be able to do with Hubble,” Yale University astrophysicist Pascal Oesch, the lead author of the study, said in a statement.

The galaxy, unpoetically named GN-z11, appears as an unremarkable, fuzzy, dark red splotch when it’s magnified from an image taken by the Hubble Telescope. But by measuring a phenomenon known as redshift, Oesch and his colleagues were able to look back in time to when the galaxy was brilliantly blue and incredibly hot, bursting with brand new stars that formed at a frenetic rate.

“It really is star bursting,” study co-author Gabriel Brammer, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute, told the Associated Press.

Redshift explains GN-z11’s dull crimson coloring: Because the universe is expanding, every object we see through a telescope is actually moving away from us. And as they move, the waves of light they emit stretch out, shifting in color from blue, which has a relatively short wavelength, down to red, whose waves are long. The phenomenon isn’t so different from the way the sound of a train deepens as it chugs away from the listener.

By measuring the degree of redshift, scientists can figure out how long light has been traveling to us through space, and thereby how long ago the thing that they’re looking at existed. Previously, the highest redshift number assigned to a galaxy was 8.68 — meaning it existed some 13.2 billion years in the past.

GN-z11’s redshift number is 11.1.

This means that the galaxy was around just 400 million years after the Big Bang — no time at all, in cosmic terms — to a period that is 97 percent of the way to the universe’s very beginnings.

(A note on time and distance: Light years are a measure of distance — how far light can travel in a year. But cases like this, they are an indicator of age. Since the light from GN-z11 has traveled 13.4 billion years to reach us, that means it’s been traveling for 13.4 billion years, so its source must be 13.4 billion years old.)

BBqkmfp.img
© NASA, ESA, and A. Feild
The universe was still a toddler at that stage — hazy, cold and shrouded in a fog of hydrogen gas.

But the stars in GN-z11 and other galaxies like it were fast-growing giants that would have swiftly heated things up, “frying” the gas around them, the scientists told the BBC. And new ones were popping out all the time; GN-z11 formed stars at a rate 20 times faster than our own Milky Way.

For a brief time, they burned brilliantly. And then they burned out.

The researchers say that the existence of such a hot and active galaxy shows how little they know about the universe’s toddler years. Marijn Franx, a co-author from the University of Leiden, noted in the statement that previous research suggested that such a thing wasn’t possible.

How exactly the brilliant GN-z11 was created “remains somewhat of a mystery for now,” added his colleague Ivo Labbe.

There is some skepticism about GN-z11’s age from other scientists. Speaking to the AP, Richard Ellis, an astronomer at the European Southern Observatory who found the previous record-holder for farthest galaxy ever seen, noted that the astronomers studied a spectrum of light that’s seen as less reliable.

Ellis wrote in an email that those light signatures are “noisier and harder to interpret,” and that for GN-z11 to be visible it would have to be three times brighter than typical galaxies.

Oesch responded that his team made sure “this was as clean as possible a measurement,” and noted that the technique he used is now becoming standard.

This will probably stand as one of Hubble’s last big accomplishments and almost certainly its most distant find. The decades-old behemoth hasn’t been repaired since 2009, and will likely be retired after NASA launches its new space telescope, the James Webb, in 2018.

Exactly how that happens is still up in the air, so to speak. The telescope could be booted into a higher “parking orbit,” where it will float for centuries as yet another piece of space junk. Or it might be summoned back to Earth via a robotic craft, which would guide it on a fiery descent into the Pacific Ocean.

But both options are still years away. If anything, Oesch said, the new find shows that after more than two decades aloft, Hubble has still got it.

“Hubble has proven once again, even after almost 26 years in space, just how special it is,” he told the BBC. “When the telescope was launched we were investigating galaxies a little over half-way back in cosmic history. Now, we’re going 97 percent of the way back. It really is a tremendous achievement.”

http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/techn...n-they-ever-have-before/ar-BBqkG9A?li=BBnb7Kz


QWAK,Mr.Peabody and his "way back machein" was/is more fun to watch!:dduck:

It is also more relivent to our daily lives! ;)


the DUCK :winks2:
 
Last edited:

Ebie

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How fast is it moving away from us?
50 times the speed of light?
 

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Nobel prize winner, Halton Arp - Intrinsic Red Shift

 

Ebie

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I will watch later. How fast is it moving away from us, by the redshift calculation--or does he avoid saying it?
I will guess 50 times the speed of light...
 

<SLV>

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I will watch later. How fast is it moving away from us, by the redshift calculation--or does he avoid saying it?
I will guess 50 times the speed of light...
Not following you. Light speed is the universal speed limit.
 

Ebie

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The most distant galaxies are moving away from us at over 20 times the speed of light.
Supposedly it is space itself that can expand faster than light...
This object must be moving so fast (apparent speed) that they don't want to say it.
Not following you. Light speed is the universal speed limit.
 

Alton

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Seriously, watch the Halton Arp vid. Red shift is not all it's cracked up to be as a tool to measure space/time. They should put a note on telescope lenses...CAUTION: Objects In Lens Are Closer Than They Appear.
 

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This is fiction passed off as science.

Looking through a telescope is to see far away - not back in time.

Any thing to support the anti-intellectual belief system of billions or years, life from non-life, something from nothing, and we're all animals.
 

Joe King

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This is fiction passed off as science.

Looking through a telescope is to see far away - not back in time.
Seeing far away IS seeing back in time. How could it not be? Take our Sun for example. When you see the Sun from Earth, you are seeing it as it was 8 minutes ago because the light hitting your retina left the Sun that long ago. Hence you are seeing the Sun as it appeared 8 minutes in the past.
Lights speed is 186,000MPS. The Sun is 90,000,000 miles away. That means it takes approx 8 minutes for its light to reach us.

Light has a speed just as sound does.
When you hear thunder from a distance, you are hearing evidence of what happened in the past. Namely the lightening bolt that already happened several seconds earlier and caused the sound you are just now hearing.


When Pluto is observed, it is being observed in a spot it no longer occupies as it takes the Suns light bouncing off of it so long to reach your eyeball that it has already moved from the position you are seeing it in.

When you look at things further away than that, the same principle applies. How could it not?



Any thing to support the anti-intellectual belief system of billions or years,
How do you know how old God is? Perhaps we're merely his latest "new toy"?

life from non-life,
The Bible supports this contention.

something from nothing,
That is not what the Big Bang theory purports, but rather a gross mis-interpretation by those who don't understand the theory and are seeking to dis-credit the theory.

and we're all animals.
It's worse than that even. Per the Bible we're nothing but dust. At least animals are alive. Dust is just dust.