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Dr Bones & Nurse Amy: The Survival Medicine Hour Of Doom & Bloom

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7 Antiseptics For Your Medical Kit
August 3, 2017




Betadine is a Iodophor-type antiseptic

I’ve often said that, in a major disaster, we may be thrown back to a bygone era where modern medicine is not an option. Indeed, we can expect civil war-era statistics with regards to major abdominal and chest trauma outcomes, but we will still be ahead of our ancestors even if we’re thrown off the grid. That’s because of modern knowledge of antisepsic techniques.

The word antiseptic comes from the greek words anti (against) and septikos (putrid or rotten). Antiseptics are substances with antimicrobial properties applied to living tissue to reduce the possibility of infection. Antiseptics, it should be noted, are not antibiotics. Antibiotics are meant to destroy bacteria within the body. Antiseptics are also different from disinfectants, which destroy germs found on non-living objects. All of these are important supplies for the survival medic.


Infected wound

We have a number of videos on this website that discuss antibiotics and what your options are in a survival scenario. If you haven’t been here before, use the search engine and you’ll find there are more than you think. We haven’t, however, talked a lot about antiseptics. Let’s discuss the most popular types on the market that might be candidates for your survival medical kit.

Iodophors: Iodophors like Betadine contain iodine, a substance that can also be used to purify water, but is combined with a solubilizing agent, povidone, which makes it, unlike pure iodine, relatively nonirritating and nontoxic to living tissue. Iodophors work against a broad array of microorganisms and don’t need to be heavily diluted. I will admit that I do dilute my Betadine if I use it on open wounds for regular dressing changes. Iodophors are effective in killing microbes within just a few minutes.


Chlorhexidine

Chlorhexidine Gluconate: This substance, perhaps better known by its brand name “Hibiclens”, is helpful against many types of germs, although it’s not very effective against fungal infections. It’s relatively long-lasting, however, compared to some other antiseptics. For this reason, Hibiclens is popular as a way to prepare areas for surgery and for healthcare providers to scrub their hands before patient encounters.

Alcohol: Ethyl Alcohol (also called ethanol) is another tried and true antiseptic product. It, along with isopropyl alcohol, kills many different types of microbes and is fact acting and inexpensive. The problem is that alcohol has a drying effect on skin, the oral cavity, and vagina. It has a tendency to inhibit the development of new cells, so use it for an initial wound cleaning but not for regular care.

Benzalkonium Chloride: BZK is a mild antiseptic and is easily tolerated by most people. One of the most popular first aid wipes or sprays, some say that it has a special effect against the rabies virus, but there’s little hard data supporting this claim.

Hydrogen Peroxide: Hydrogen peroxide is used to clean wounds and reacts with blood to form an impressive foam. This is because blood and most cells contain an enzyme called catalase. Catalase reacts with hydrogen peroxide, converting it into oxygen and water. This effect makes it popular for household first aid in common mishaps like abrasions, but not a great candidate for regular dressing changes due to its drying effect on new cells. It can be used as a mouth rinse in the oral cavity, however, making it a candidate for a survival dental kit.

PCMX (Parachlorometaxylenol or chloro-xylenol for short): Available in more brand names than you can count, this substance is effective against most germs. It’s less potent, though, than chlorhexidine and iodophors, although the antiseptic effect lasts longer. PCMX can be irritating, so don’t use it on mucous membranes like the oral cavity and vagina.


Bleach and baking soda added to just-boiled water in the right proportions can make an effective antiseptic solution

Bleach: Bleach can be found as either a sodium hypochlorite (Clorox) solution or can be improvised with calcium hypochlorite granules, also known as “Pool Shock”. Used more as a disinfectant than an antiseptic, bleach in very dilute solutions (0.5% or less) can make Dakin’s solution, a time-honored method to clean wounds. Be sure to watch our recent two-part video on this website that shows you how to make it easily and affordably.

I’m sure you know of more products that can serve as antiseptics for your survival sick room. Armed with these items, your chances of succeeding when everything else fails, at least as a medic, go up exponentially. Be sure to get the supplies and knowledge that will save lives in times of trouble.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/7-antiseptics-for-your-medical-kit/
 

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How to use a CAT Tourniquet or Combat Application Tourniquet
DrBones NurseAmy


Published on Aug 5, 2017
Learn how to use a CAT Tourniquet (Combat Application Tourniquet). Please Note: If you are under fire, use the "high and tight" method (over clothes and very high on the extremity), when safe: apply TQ above and closer to the wound (usually 2-3"). Apply a back-up tourniquet above the first one if rebleeding is noted or retighten 1st TQ if no back-up available. Important: Please see my video "10 Critical Principles of Tourniquet Use".https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zI5j... . By Amy Alton, ARNP of
Website: https://www.doomandbloom.net/
Store: https://store.doomandbloom.net/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/preppershow
The Survival Medicine Handbook (Amazon Affiliate) Link: http://amzn.to/2vBd6vJ
 

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Survival Medicine Hour: Ortho Injuries, Lost at Sea, Pt.1, Antiseptics, More
August 5, 2017



SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR PODCAST #350


Survival at Sea

In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour, hosts Joe Alton MD, aka Dr. Bones and Amy Alton, ARNP, aka Nurse Amy discuss the antiseptics you should consider for your medical storage, how to tell sprains from fractures without modern medical imaging, and what to do when your boat capsizes in open water and you find yourself alone with or without a life vest. Plus, Nurse Amy answers a question as a member of the expert council on Jack Spirko’s Survival Podcast regarding what medical supplies would be helpful for the motorcyclist on the highway!


Sprains vs Fractures

All this and more on the Survival Medicine Hour! To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/08/04/survival-medicine-hour-sprain-vs-fracture-antiseptics-lost-at-sea-pt1-more

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

https://www.doomandbloom.net/surviv...o-injuries-lost-at-sea-pt-1-antiseptics-more/
 

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Medical mondays talking about Hyperthermia signs and systems.
preppernurse1


Published on Aug 7, 2017
Dealing with Hyperthermia the signs and systems. And how to treat it. Welcome to medical Mondays.
 

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12 Water Safety Tips
August 8, 2017



12 WATER SAFETY TIPS


Keep her safe this summer

In warm weather, a lot of outdoor activities will include waterfront areas like the lake or beach. A dunk in the local water feature is refreshing, but puts many, especially children, at risk for injuries; of these, drowning is one of the most tragic.

Among those 14 years old and under, drowning is the second most common cause of injury-related death (car accidents are first). More than 800 kids die due to drowning mishaps every year, and thousands more sustain nonfatal injuries, sometimes involving significant brain damage.

WHAT PUTS YOU AT RISK FOR DROWNING


Keep an eye on the little ones at all times

There are a number of factors which increase the risk of drowning. They include:

Poor swimming ability: Simply put, if you can’t swim, your chances of drowning increase.

Poor supervision: Drowning can happen relatively quickly and without a lot of noise. Even the presence of lifeguards may not save you on the beach, and unsupervised small children could die even in the bathtub.

Location: Although home swimming pools are the most likely places that young children drown, most adult drowning events occur in natural, boating, or wilderness settings.

Lack of Barriers: Pool fences that separate the pool from the yard reduces a child’s risk of drowning by 83%.

Lack of Life Jackets: 88% of boating deaths by drowning involve people who weren’t wearing life vests.

Alcohol: The majority of deaths by drowning in adolescents and adults involve impaired judgment and coordination caused by drinking.

Seizure Disorders: Drowning, often in the bathtub, is the most common cause of death by injury for those with a seizure disorder (epilepsy).

HOW TO RECOGNIZE A DROWNING PERSON


mouth below water level, silent gasping without calling for help may alert you to someone in trouble

The act of drowning if usually associated with non-swimmers screaming and thrashing about. This may, indeed, lead to drowning, but once begun, it’s as likely to be a silent event.

In the early stages, very little water enters the lungs due to a spasm of the windpipe that seals the airway. This prevents passage of water into the lungs, but also air. As a result, the drowning person is unable to call for help. Within a short period, they lose consciousness, leading to a set of reactions in the body that ends in cardiac arrest.


These reactions may appear unremarkable, but are important to recognize. They include:
  • Forward position with the mouth at or below water level
  • Alternatively, supine with head tilted back and mouth open
  • Eyes glassy and open
  • Gasping for air instead of yelling for help
  • Swimming ineffectively
  • Flailing arms and legs in a failed effort to rise out of the water
At this stage, the process may still be reversed with prompt and effective resuscitation. Survival rates depend strongly on the duration of immersion.

REACH, THROW, ROW, GO


Pools and Lakes are common risk areas for drowning

At the beach or in the wilderness, you might encounter a distressed person in the water. Your first response will be to jump in and help. The victim, however, may be panicking and flailing around. To avoid injury and reduce the risk that you’ll become the next victim: Reach, Throw, Row, Go.
  1. Reach out to the person with a stick or oar.
  2. Throw the person a lifeline, life preserver, or other floating object.
  3. Row out to the person in a canoe or other boat if available.
  4. Go into the water only when there is no other option.
THE CHAIN OF DROWNING SURVIVAL



In circumstances where you encounter a person in trouble in the water:
  • Shout for help.
  • Remove the person from the water in a safe manner (Reach, Throw, Row, Go).
  • In normal times, call Emergency Medical Services.
  • Begin CPR, using both chest compression and rescue breathing. Chest compression alone is insufficient for drowning victims.
  • If available, use an automated external defibrillator (AED) and assist in transport to a modern medical facility if possible.
12 TIPS FOR STAYING SAFE IN THE WATER

Here are 12 safety tips to keep your family safe from drowning mishaps:
  • Take Swimming lessons: Don’t go into swimming-depth water if you don’t know how to swim. Swimming lessons are provided by many municipalities throughout the country, even for very young children. So are CPR classes, which are very important when it comes to aiding drowning victims.
  • Keep strict supervision on minors: Children in the water should always be supervised by a responsible, sober adult. For preschool children, the adult should be close enough to touch the child and not involved in any other activity.
  • Utilize the “Buddy System”: Everyone, even adults, should always swim with another person or persons.
  • On the beach, beware rip currents: Know the meaning of flags on supervised beaches. High waves, discolored water, debris, and channels of water moving away from shore are signs of dangerous conditions. If caught in a rip current, swim parallel to shore until free, then diagonally towards the beach.
  • Foam “noodles” or inflatable toys don’t take the place of life jackets. Be firm about using the right equipment, even for adults.
  • Pool fencing saves lives: Four-sided fencing 4 feet high with a high latch is the safest way to prevent small children from falling or jumping into the pool and getting into trouble. Don’t leave toys near the pool after swimming.
  • Be aware of the weather: Thundershowers often whip up the water with strong winds, increasing the risk of drowning.
  • Be physically fit: Swimming involves exertion, so make sure you’re up to the challenge.
  • Avoid alcohol: Any water activity is more dangerous if you’re drinking.
  • Don’t hyperventilate: Taking rapid deep breaths to see who can stay underwater longest may cause a blackout.
  • Use the shower, not the bathtub, if you suffer from a seizure disorder. The odds of drowning are much lower if you avoid the tub. Any outdoor swimming activity should be done only with one-on-one supervision.
  • In the wilderness, be wary of river crossings. Fast moving water may knock you off your feet, even if less than a foot deep.
Make that summer trip to the beach or lake memorable (in a good way) by knowing how to recognize and treat near-drownings. You’ll be glad you did.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/12-water-safety-tips/
 

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Radiation Sickness
August 11, 2017



RADIATION SICKNESS


Radiation sickness

Many consider a nuclear attack an outlandish scenario to which only conspiracy theorists subscribe. Unfortunately, the threat of a nuclear incident, accidental or purposeful, exists, perhaps more than in recent years, due to recent developments in the Korean peninsula.

Atomic weapons can decimate a population from thermal blasts, but it also causes illness and death due to exposure from radiation. Although populated areas have experienced detonations only twice, (Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945), nuclear reactor meltdowns and other events have occurred from time to time since then, such as in Fukushima in 2011 and Chernobyl in 1986.

In an atomic explosion, radiation is just one of the possible causes of casualties; heat effects and kinetic energy damage near the blast will cause many deaths and injuries. Radiation released into the atmosphere, however, can have devastating effects far from “ground zero”.

A nuclear event produces “fallout”. Fallout is the particulate matter that is thrown into the air by the explosion. It can travel hundreds (if not thousands) of miles on the prevailing winds, coating fields, livestock, and people with radioactive material.

The higher the fallout goes into the atmosphere, the farther it will travel downwind. This material contains elements that are hazardous if inhaled or ingested, like Radioiodine, Cesium, and Strontium. Even worse, fallout is absorbed by the animals and plants that make up our food supply. In large enough amounts, it can rapidly become life-threatening. Even in small amounts, it is hazardous to your long-term health.

A nuclear power plant meltdown is usually less damaging than a nuclear blast, as the radioactive material doesn’t make it as high up in the sky as the mushroom cloud from an atomic bomb. The worst effects will be felt by those near the reactors. Lighter particles, like radioactive iodine, will travel the farthest, and are the main concern for those far from the actual explosion or meltdown. The level of exposure will depend on the distance the radioactive particles travel from the meltdown and how long it took to arrive.

RADIATION SICKNESS

The medical effects of exposure are collectively known as “radiation sickness” or “Acute Radiation Syndrome”. A certain amount of radiation exposure is tolerable over time, but your goal should be to shelter your group as much as possible.

To accomplish this goal, we should first clarify what the different terms for measuring the quantities of radiation mean. Scientists use terms such as RADS, REMS, SIEVERTS, BECQUERELS or CURIES to describe radiation amounts. Different terms are used when describing the amount of radiation being given off by a source, the total amount of radiation that is actually absorbed by a human or animal, or the chance that a living thing will suffer health damage from exposure:


Marie and Pierre Curie

BECQUERELS/CURIES – these terms describe the amount of radiation that, say, a hunk of uranium gives off into the environment. Named after scientists who were the first to work with (and die from) radioactivity.

RADS – the amount of the radiation in the environment that is actually absorbed by a living thing.

REMS/SIEVERTS – the measurement of the risks of health damage from the radiation absorbed.

This is somewhat confusing, so, for our purposes, let’s use RADS. A RAD (Radiation Absorbed Dose) measures the amount of radiation energy transferred to some mass of material, typically humans.


Some effects of radiation exposure (wiki commons)

An acute radiation dose (one received over a short period of time) is the most likely to cause damage. Below is a list of the effects on humans corresponding to the amount of radiation absorbed. For comparison, assume that you absorb about 0.6 RADs per year from natural or household sources. These are the effects of different degrees of acute radiation exposure on humans:
  • 30-70 RADS: Mild headache or nausea within several hours of exposure. Full recovery is expected.
  • 70-150 RADS: Mild nausea and vomiting in a third of patients. Decreased wound healing and increased susceptibility to infection. Full recovery is expected.
  • 150-300 RADS: Moderate nausea and vomiting in a majority of patients. Fatigue and weakness in half of victims. Infection and/or spontaneous bleeding may occur due to a weakened immune system. Medical care will be required for many, especially those with burns or wounds. Occasional deaths at 300 RADS exposure may occur.
  • 300-500 RADS: Moderate nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and weakness in most patients. Diarrheal stools, dehydration, loss of appetite, skin breakdown, and infection will be common. Hair loss is visible in most over time. At the high end of exposure, expect a 50% death rate.
  • Over 500 RADS: Spontaneous bleeding, fever, stomach and intestinal ulcers, bloody diarrhea, dehydration, low blood pressure, infections, and hair loss is anticipated in almost all patients. Death rates approach 100%.
The effects related to exposure may occur over time, and symptoms are often not immediate. Hair loss, for example, will become apparent at 10-14 days. Deaths may occur weeks after the exposure.

PROTECTION AGAINST EXPOSURE TO RADIATION


radiation dosimeter

In the early going, your goal is to prevent exposures of over 100 RADS. A radiation dosimeter will be useful to gauge radiation levels and is widely available for purchase. This item will give you an idea of your likelihood of developing radiation sickness.

There are three basic ways of decreasing the total dose of radiation:

1) Limit the time unprotected. Radiation absorbed is dependent on the length of exposure. Leave areas where high levels are detected and you are without adequate shelter. The activity of radioactive particles decreases over time. After 24 hours, levels usually drop to 1/10 of their previous value or less.

2) Increase the distance from the radiation. Radiation disperses over distance and effects decrease the farther away you are.

3) Provide a barrier. A shelter will decrease the level of exposure, so it is important to know how to construct one that will serve as a shield between your people and the radiation source. A dense material will give better protection that a light material.


DIFFERENT MATERIALS AS BARRIERS


Radiation burns post-Hiroshima bombing

The more material that you can use to separate yourself from fallout, the more likely you won’t suffer ill effects. Barrier effectiveness is measured as “halving thickness”. This is the thickness of a particular shield material that will reduce gamma radiation (the most dangerous kind) by one half. When you multiply the halving thickness, you multiply your protection.

For example, the halving thickness of concrete is 2.4 inches or 6 centimeters. A barrier of 2.4 inches of concrete will drop radiation exposure by one half. Doubling the thickness of the barrier again (4.8 inches of concrete) drops it to one fourth (1/2 x 1/2) and tripling it (7.2 inches) will drop it to one eighth (1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2), etc. Ten halving thicknesses (24 inches of concrete) will drop the total radiation exposure to 1/1024th that of being out in the open.

Here are the halving thicknesses of some common materials:
  • Lead: 4 inches or 1 centimeter
  • Steel: 1 inch or 2.5 centimeters
  • Concrete: 4 inches or 6 centimeters
  • Soil (packed): 6 inches or 9 centimeters
  • Water: 2 inches or 18 centimeters
  • Wood: 11 inches or 30 centimeters


By looking at the list above, you can see that the same protection is given with 1/6 the thickness of lead plating as that of concrete.

TREATING RADIATION SICKNESS

Eliminating external contamination with fallout “dust” is important before absorption occurs. This can be accomplished d with simple soap and water. Scrub the area gently with a clean wet sponge. Safely dispose of the sponge and dry the area thoroughly.

Internal contamination is a more difficult issue. Emergency treatment involves dealing with the symptoms. Once the diagnosis is made, methods that may help include antibiotics to treat infections, fluids for dehydration, diuretics to flush out contaminants, and drugs to treat nausea. In severely ill patients, stem cell transplants and multiple transfusions are indicated but will not be options in an austere setting. This hard reality underscores the importance of having an adequate shelter to prevent excessive exposure.

Protection is available against some of the long term effects of radiation. Potassium Iodide (known by the chemical symbol KI), taken orally, can prevent radioactive Iodine from damaging the specific organ that it targets, the thyroid gland. The usual adult dose is 130 mg daily for 7-10 days or for as long as exposure is significant. For children, the dosage is 65 mg daily. KI is available in a FDA-approved commercial product called Thyrosafe.


Thyrosafe (Potassium Iodide)

Taking KI 30 minutes to 24 hours prior to a radiation exposure will prevent the eventual epidemic of thyroid cancer that will result if no treatment is given. Radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl disaster has accounted for more than 4,000 cases of thyroid cancer so far, mostly in children and adolescents. Therefore, if you only have a limited quantity of KI, treat the youngsters first.

Although there is a small amount of KI in ordinary iodized salt, not enough is present to confer any protection by ingesting it. It would take 250 teaspoons of household iodized salt to equal one Potassium Iodide tablet.

Pets may also be at risk for long-term effects from radioactive iodine. It is recommended to consider 1/2 tablet daily for large dogs, and 1/4 tablet for small dogs and cats.

ALTERNATIVE REMEDY FOR RADIATION EXPOSURE

Don’t depend on supplies of the drug to be available after a nuclear event. Even the federal government will have little KI in reserve to give to the general population. In recent power plant meltdowns, there was little or no Potassium Iodide to be found anywhere for purchase


Betadine Solution

If you find yourself without any KI, consider this alternative: Povidone-Iodine solution (brand name Betadine). “Paint” 8 ml of Betadine on the abdomen or forearm 2-12 hours prior to exposure and re-apply daily. Enough should be absorbed through the skin to give protection against radioactive Iodine in fallout.


Betadine as an alternative for KI

For children 3 years old or older (but under 150 lbs or 70 kg), apply 4 ml. Use 2 ml for toddlers and 1 ml for infants. This strategy should also work on animals. If you don’t have a way to measure, remember that a standard teaspoon is about 5 milliliters. Discontinue the daily treatment after 3-7 days or when Radioiodine levels have fallen to safer levels.

Be aware that those who are allergic to seafood will probably be allergic to anything containing iodine. Adverse reactions may also occur if you take medications such as diuretics and Lithium. It is also important to note that you cannot drink tincture of iodine or Betadine; it is poisonous if ingested.

Although many don’t view a nuclear event as a likely disaster scenario, it’s important to learn about all the possible issues that may impact your family in uncertain times.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/radiation-sickness/
 

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Survival Medicine Hour: Survival at Sea, Pt.2, Radiation Sickness, More
August 12, 2017



SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR #352


Burn victim of Hiroshima detonation

In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour, Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy discuss the recent saber-rattling from North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, our responses, and what to do if your area is hit by radiation from an atomic blast (or a nuclear reactor meltdown). Dr. Alton also talks about what to do if you’re lost at sea: How to get food and water, protection from the elements, and even a little about shark attacks!


Solar Still

All this and more on the Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP.

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/08/11/survival-medicine-hour-survival-at-sea-pt-2-radiation-more


Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy

https://www.doomandbloom.net/survival-medicine-hour-survival-at-sea-pt-2-radiation-sickness-more/
 

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Types of Nuclear Weapons and Their Effects
August 16, 2017



TYPES OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND THEIR EFFECTS


Ground Blast with Fireball

Given the fragile state of affairs on the Korean peninsula, fears of a nuclear incident are higher than at any time since the Cold War. With good reason, most people associate use of nuclear weapons with devastating outcomes. Few, however, know much about the different types and their actual effects.

(by the way, It’s pronounced “noo-clee-ar”, not “noo-cu-lar”)

TYPES OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS

Until the recent missile launches by North Korea, most people were concerned about the use of “dirty bombs“ by terrorists. A dirty bomb is not technically a nuclear weapon. It uses conventional explosives to disperse radioactive material in the general area. Usually, the effect of the explosion causes more damage and casualties than the radioactive elements.

Our concept of an “atomic bomb“ as developed by the Manhattan Project in the 1940s is one that uses “nuclear fission”. The explosion is caused by a chain reaction that splits atomic nuclei. The result is a wave of intense heat, light, pressure, and kinetic energy equaling thousands of tons (also called kilotons) of TNT. This is followed by the release of radioactive particles in a cloud that resembles a mushroom (if a ground blast). Mixed with dirt and debris, the particles fall back to Earth, contaminating crops, animals, and people. This will happen in the area of the detonation, but will also be blown elsewhere by the prevailing winds.

Atomic bombs gave way to hydrogen bombs, which are best described as “thermonuclear” weapons due to the generation of extreme heat during detonation. H-Bombs use a process known as nuclear fusion, which takes two light nuclei and forms a heavier one, using variations of hydrogen atoms called “isotopes”. This fusion process requires high temperatures and usually involves a fission reaction as discussed above to initiate. H-Bombs don’t just generate power in the kilotons; they can reach levels in the megatons (millions of tons) of TNT.

Another type of thermonuclear weapon is the “neutron bomb“, which generates much less kinetic energy and thermal damage, but much more radiation. Enhanced radiation weapons like the neutron bomb generate a fusion reaction that allows neutrons to escape the weapon with only a limited blast. Originally designed by the United States to counter massive Soviet tank formations, the neutron bomb is an example of a tactical nuclear weapon. The effect is to leave infrastructure mostly intact while wiping out human targets due to massive radiation.


Blast and Heat Waves cause more % damage than radiation in a fission bomb detonation

DAMAGE CAUSED BY A NUCLEAR ATTACK

The impact of a nuclear bomb is dependent on its “yield”, a measure of the amount of energy produced. The Hiroshima A-Bomb had a yield of 15 kilotons, while the “Tsar Bomba” detonated by the Russians in 1961 had a yield of 51 megatons (51,000 kilotons!). Most of the weapons stockpile of the U.S. and Russia consist of bombs in the 100 to 500 kiloton range, much stronger than Hiroshima and much weaker than Tsar Bomba. This is because they are meant to be fired at major cities in clusters rather than one large bomb, which would be easier to intercept than, say, 20 smaller ones.


Damage is caused by:
  • Blast effects (kinetic energy) – damage due to the explosion and resulting shock wave
  • Heat (thermal energy) – damage generated by extreme heat
  • Radiation (initially and later via fallout) – both local and, later, far-reaching
  • Electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) – disrupts telecommunications, infrastructure
You can expect a generally circular pattern of local damage, but various factors come into play besides the yield of the weapon. The altitude of the explosion, weather, wind conditions, and nearby geologic features play a role. The U.S. government estimates the distribution of damage for fission bombs to be distributed in the following manner:
  • 50% shockwave
  • 35% heat
  • 5% initial blast radiation
  • 10% fallout radiation

Hiroshima Burn Victim

(Note: I don’t have the data in front of me, but it stands to reason that H-bombs would likely cause a higher percentage of heat damage while Neutron bombs would cause more radiation damage than the above model for a standard fission bomb.)

The atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945 flattened buildings over a roughly 4 square mile area and killed 60,000 people immediately. Another 90,000-140,000 succumbed later to injuries and radiation exposure. Although this represents a total of 150,000 to 200,000 fatalities, the entire population did not perish. At the time of the explosion, there were about 350,000 people in Hiroshima, including 43,000 soldiers. This shows that, although horrific in its effects, that distance from ground zero and other factors play a role in a nuclear weapon’s lethality, as does the power of the bomb itself.

A 50 megaton H-Bomb like the Russian “Tsar Bomba“, however, would cause a much larger circle of devastation than the Hiroshima bomb, with widespread fatalities at least 20 miles from ground zero and third-degree burns 50 miles away. Windows were reported shattered from the test detonation as far away as Norway and Finland.

You might think there isn’t anything you can do in a nuclear attack, and if you’re at ground zero at the moment of detonation, you’re right. But your chances of survival, given some time, distance, and protection, may be better than you think. Well talk about’ what you can do to increase your chances of survival in future articles.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/types-of-nuclear-weapons-and-their-effects/
 

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Survival Medicine Hour: Nuclear Blasts, Water Safety, Eclipse Eye Safety
August 21, 2017



SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR #353


Solar Eclipse (via Wiki)

In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour, Joe Alton MD, aka Dr. Bones and Amy Alton, ARNP, aka Nurse Amy discuss the types of nuclear weapons and the damage they cause in the form of shock and heat waves. Plus, the different types of radiation emitted by detonations of nuclear bombs: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, X-ray, and Neutron radiation. Also, what are the damage zones for, say, a Hiroshima type bomb and what are the chances you’ll survive?

Plus, it’s still pretty hot out and the kids will want to be at the pool, lake or beach. Here’s 12 water safety tips that can prevent a near-drowning mishap, the second most common cause of death in those 14 years old and under by injury. Find out what actually happens when you drown (hint: it’s not all screaming and thrashing around).


Prevent Drowning

Lastly, how to safely view the coming solar eclipse. Did you know that old eclipse glasses more than three years old no longer give you protection, and that homemade filters or sunglasses will not do the job?

All this and more on the latest Survival Medicine Hour with Joe and Amy Alton! To listen in, click the link below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/08/18/survival-medicine-hour-nuclear-blasts-water-safety-eclipse-eye-safety

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

https://www.doomandbloom.net/surviv...URSE+AMY'S+..........Doom+and+Bloom(tm)+Show)
 

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1st 2nd and 3rd degree burns and how to treat them.
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Published on Aug 21, 2017
Knowing what type of burn you have and how to treat it.
 

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Shoulder Dislocations
August 17, 2017



SHOULDER DISLOCATIONS


Anterior shoulder dislocation accounts for 95-97% of cases

Of all the joints in your body, the shoulder has the greatest range of motion. This flexibility comes at the cost of low joint stability. 50% of all major joint dislocations seen in U.S. emergency rooms involve the shoulder joint.

A dislocation is an injury in which a bone is pulled out of its joint by some type of trauma. Dislocations commonly occur in shoulders, fingers, and elbows, but knees, ankles, and hips may also be affected. The joint involved looks visibly abnormal and is unusable. Bruising and pain often accompany the injury.

If the dislocation is momentary and the bone slips back into its joint on its own, it is called a subluxation. Subluxations can be treated the same way that sprains are, using the R.I.C.E.S. method. It should be noted that the traditional medical definition of subluxation is somewhat different from the chiropractic one.

SHOULDER ANATOMY


Detailed shoulder anatomy (wiki)

First, a short anatomy lesson. Unlike the kids’ song, there is no “shoulder bone” connected to the “arm bone”. The shoulder actually consists of three bones: the upper arm bone (known as the “humerus“), the shoulder blade or “scapula“, and the collarbone, also called the “clavicle“. The head of the humerus fits into a socket in the scapula. This socket (the “glenoid cavity“) is stabilized by ligaments, strong connective tissues that keep the humerus centered in the socket. These connective tissues, along with muscles and tendons, form a capsule that keeps the joint stable. Significant weakening of the capsule can cause the humerus to be dislocated.

The patient with a shoulder dislocation will come, usually holding their forearm for support, with complaints of pain and an arm that will appear obviously out of place. Swelling is not unusual. You might notice that the shoulder appears “lower” than on the uninjured side.

Of course, if there is medical care readily available, the patient with a shoulder dislocation should go directly to the local hospital. Indeed, some dislocations may only be reduced surgically under general anesthesia. In an off-grid setting, however, you are on your own and will probably have to correct the dislocation yourself. This is known as performing a “reduction”.

HOW TO REDUCE SHOULDER DISLOCATIONS

Reduction is easiest to perform soon after the dislocation, before muscles spasm and the inevitable swelling occurs. Not only does reducing the dislocation decrease the pain experienced by the victim, but it will lessen the damage to all the blood vessels and nerves that run along the line of the injury. The faster the reduction is performed, the less likely there will be permanent damage. Unfortunately, a joint that experienced a dislocation may have a tendency to go out of place again in the future.

If help is not forthcoming, expect significant pain on the part of the patient during the actual reduction procedure. Giving some pain relievers like ibuprofen or stronger might be useful before the procedure to decrease discomfort. Prescription muscle relaxers such as Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) are also helpful.

The use of traction will greatly aid your attempt to fix the problem. Traction is the act of pulling the dislocated bone away from the joint in such a fashion as to give room for it to slip back into place. This goal can be accomplished in various ways, depending on the type of dislocation.

The following procedures for reducing a shoulder dislocation are just some of the techniques used in this excellent video from Larry Mellick, MD of the Medical College of Georgia:


Method 1: Have the patient lie face down on a surface high enough that the arm (including the shoulder joint) dangles without hitting the ground. Place the patient’s arm into position slowly for the least discomfort.


Wrap a 15-20 pound weight around the forearm and wrist (again, not hitting the ground). Although they could hold the weight in their hand, this may tense the muscles, and you need them to relax. Once the muscles are relaxed enough (maybe 10 minutes or so), the arm should pop back into place.

Method 2: Have the patient lie on their back. With their elbow at a 90-degree angle, slowly rotate the arm outward with the palm facing the sky. This should be a slow movement, and pain should be a sign to slow down.

Now, raise the arm so that the hand is behind their head, as if they were scratching the back of their neck. The action is similar to a baseball pitcher about to throw a ball. Once their hand is behind their head, slowly help them reach for the opposite shoulder. This motion should move the arm back into place.

Method 3: If you are alone with your patient, place your foot against the side of the patient’s chest and apply slow traction by pulling the arm while holding the wrist with the palm facing up. This, again, must be done slowly and gradually until the arm pops back into place.

If you’re fortunate enough to have an assistant, wrap a towel or sheet around the upper chest of the patient and have the assistant pull in the opposite direction to provide counter-traction. This avoids having to use your foot for that purpose.

If these procedures are successful, pain and movement should be immediately improved, although it is normal to have some continued discomfort in the injured shoulder. Your patient may benefit from the placement of ice packs to reduce swelling and a sling to immobilize the joint while it heals.

Full recovery will take about 4-12 weeks, depending on the age and physical condition of the patient. should be noted that the dislocation itself or the reduction procedure could possibly disrupt blood vessels or nerves, leading to circulation issues as well as effects to sensation and motor function.

Orthopedic injuries will be common in any austere setting. The medic has to be ready to take the initiative when the ambulance is not on the way if full use of an injured extremity is to be recovered.

Joe Alton MD

 

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Skin Problems and Their Treatments
August 23, 2017



SKIN PROBLEMS AND TREATMENTS


Dermatitis Herpetiformis is not actually associated with herpes virus

Treating medical problems in a remote homestead or after a disaster won’t always be about gunshot wounds and broken bones. Sometimes, little things can make people miserable and affect their ability to contribute to group efforts. Skin inflammation, called “dermatitis“, is one of the issues that a caregiver can’t ignore if the group is going to function at 100% efficiency.

This condition has various causes and varies in appearance from case to case, although most present with redness and itchiness, sometimes with swelling. You might not consider itchiness to be a problem worth the medic’s attention, but continuous scratching traumatizes the skin, your natural armor, and may lead to a type of infection called “cellulitis“ once the skin is broken. Cellulitis has nothing to do with “cellulite”.

TYPES OF DERMATITIS


contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is caused by physical contact with allergy-causing substances called “allergens”. The allergen involved is so varied as to include almost everything, including:
  • laundry soap and detergents
  • Household cleaning products
  • Rubber or latex
  • Perfumes, makeup, deodorants
  • Metals, such as nickel
  • Preservatives
  • Weeds, such as poison ivy, oak or sumac
Usually, the first exposure only produces antibodies but not major skin reactions. Once antibodies exist against a certain substance, the next exposure can cause significant irritation (or worse general reactions such as anaphylaxis).

Once the allergen is identified, avoidance is the best way to prevent contact dermatitis. Corticosteroid creams and cool moist compresses are the cornerstones of treatment. Use these only until the rash is improved. Antihistamines such as Benadryl or Claritin will help relieve itching.


Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic Dermatitis or Eczema is a chronic itchy rash that can be found in various areas at once (oftentimes, the face) that may be accompanied by hay fever or asthma. Dust mites, animal dander, and food allergies are possible causes. Atopic dermatitis sometimes flares up in cold weather. Treatment is similar to contact dermatitis.


seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is a condition that affects areas that contain oil-rich glands called sebaceous glands. It is characterized by scaling, redness, and itching. The most common version of this is dandruff or, in infants, “cradle cap”. The area near the nose and lips is another place where you might see this type of dermatitis.

Scalp irritations caused by Seborrhea may be treated by shampoos that contain tar or pyrithione zinc (Head and Shoulders). It also can be treated by the anti-fungal ketoconazole, which supports the belief that yeast plays a part in the development of this condition.


Lichenification

Neurodermatitis is a type of dermatitis that manifests as chronic itchy and raised patches, sometimes red and sometimes just darker than normal skin. The cause is unknown, although insect bites, tight clothing, dryness, and even anxiety have been implicated as possibilities. A vicious cycle of itching and scratching leads to thick, scaly, and leathery skin called “lichenification”.

Treatment includes Antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and steroid creams, especially at night when some people scratch irritated areas without knowing. Injections of corticosteroids are given into the affected area in severe cases. Anti-anxiety medications are given to those who scratch out of nervousness.


Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

Shingles is also known as herpes zoster, and is seen in people who have previously been infected with Chicken Pox. The dormant chickenpox virus, called varicella zoster, becomes active in nerves and appears as a blistering rash with itching, burning, and pain, usually localized to the distribution of a particular nerve.

Shingles usually resolves after a very uncomfortable 2-4 weeks but may be treated with anti-viral agents, such as Acyclovir, Valtrex, or Famvir (but not by the anti-viral Tamiflu, a commonly used antiviral for influenza).


dermatitis herpetiformis

Shingles is sometimes confused with dermatitis herpetiformis, a chronic skin condition characterized by blisters that is actually not associated with herpes virus.


stasis dermatitis

Stasis dermatitis appears as an inflamed area caused by fluid and poor blood flow under the skin. It is commonly seen on the lower legs of individuals with varicose veins. Rarely seen in those under 50, poor circulation is a major factor although trauma damaging the circulation may be a factor. To deal with dermatitis related to poor circulation, you may have to use support stockings and mild steroids. In normal times, varicose veins may be dealt with surgically or with other high technology. See our article on varicose veins.


rosacea

Rosacea is an extremely common condition that manifests as a reddened area on the face that is caused by swollen blood vessels, usually in fair-skinned individuals beginning in middle age. It is accompanied by spider veins, flushing, and, sometimes, a markedly red nose and an appearance like acne. It is not acne, however, and will not respond to over-the-counter acne medicine. Antibiotics are sometimes used, and Vitamin A-related medications like Accutane may help.


Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a series of thickened patches of reddened skin with silvery flaking. The most common areas affected are the elbows, knees, scalp, armpits, scalp, and lower back. An auto-immune condition, Psoriasis causes the buildup of new skin cells where the body mistakenly thinks an injury has occurred. Moisturizers as well as corticosteroids and coal tar ointments are helpful; Psoriasis responds to sunlight, so phototherapy using special lamps are used for this type of dermatitis.

Natural supplements that improve dermatitis are numerous and often involve Omega-3 fatty acids, which have an anti-inflammatory effect. Used with evening primrose oil, it is especially effective. Chamomile cream is thought to be as potent as a mild hydrocortisone. Calendula has skin-soothing properties and may protect against contact dermatitis. Be aware that it may trigger an allergic reaction on broken skin. I’ll bet you have your own home remedies for various skin problems as well.


MEDICAL SUPPLIES FOR SKIN

Clearly, the medic will need to include some skin treatments in their medical kit. Some useful items, some with links to medical issues we’ve covered before, include:

Hydrocortisone Cream: Various mild steroid creams are useful in decreasing inflammation in an area of the skin that is inflamed.

Clotrimazole (Lotrimin in the U.S.): Helpful in the treatment of skin yeast infections, including athlete’s foot, ringworm, and others.


Athlete’s foot

Triple Antibiotic Cream: Helpful in preventing infections in areas of minor scrapes and cuts.

Insect Repellant: These are useful in preventing insect bites, which may prevent more serious medical problems such as malaria, Lyme disease, and severe allergic reactions. Commercial products usually contain DEET. Natural products, like lemon eucalyptus, lemongrass and citronella, also serve to repel insects and can be grown in many areas.

Fels-Naptha soap: This time-honored item helps to remove toxins from poison ivy, oak, and sumac from both skin and clothes. Studies show pre-bathing with Fels-Naptha may decrease effects of these rash inducing plants.


severe poison ivy rash

Permethrin shampoos/lotions (NIX, Elemite in the U.S.): Helpful in the treatment of lice and mite-related issues (head lice, scabies, etc.)

Sunscreen: Often overlooked as a medical supply, sunscreen will help prevent many skin problems down the road.

Aloe Vera: Natural product useful in treating burns. Others which may be effective include vinegar, witch hazel, diluted lavender and tea tree essential oils, etc.

Non-stick gauze dressings (e.g., Telfa brand dressing): these dressings have a shiny non-stick surface and are especially used for burns and other raw skin areas to prevent removal of healing tissue during dressing changes.

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl in the U.S.): Useful for suppressing minor reactions to bug bites and allergy-causing agents such as hives, redness, or swelling, but can cause drowsiness. Claritin and Zyrtec are milder antihistamines, but do not usually cause severe sleepiness like Benadryl can.

Epi-Pens: A self-contained prescription injection of epinephrine (adrenaline outside the U.S.) that will improve severe allergic reactions, also referred to as anaphylactic shock. Few physicians would deny you a supply of this important item, especially if they are aware that you are often outdoors.


Colloidal Oatmeal Ointment to treat insect bites and stings.

Natural Remedies: Vinegar, witch hazel, diluted lavender and tea tree essential oils,used as a compress is calming to rashes and burns. Baking soda or an oatmeal paste or bath are both very soothing to irritated or itchy skin. Apply raw honey to open skin areas for healing and infection prevention, and cover with non-stick dressings.

Other Natural Remedies: Balms containing Arnica are useful for pain relief in many people. French green clay paste used as a pack or mask has been studied for it’s healing properties. Warm tea bags (especially Chamomile) or a tea leaves poultice, (add raw honey for extra healing) contains tannins that help calm irritated skin. Just like the French green clay, cornstarch paste can be used as a soothing pack.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/skin-problems-and-their-treatments/
 

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Survival Medicine Hour: Skin Issues, Instruments, Sterile vs. Clean
August 27, 2017



Survival Medicine Hour #354


Keeping Instruments Clean

In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, our hosts discuss the difficulties in achieving sterility off the grid when it comes to techniques for procedures and for the proper cleaning and maintenance of important instruments. Plus, skin conditions that the medic will likely have to treat after a disaster, including contact dermatitis, psoriasis, stasis dermatitis, shingles, and much, much more.

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/08/24/survival-medicine-hour-skin-conditions-sterile-vs-clean-instruments

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

https://www.doomandbloom.net/survival-medicine-hour-skin-issues-instruments-sterile-vs-clean/
 

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Herbal Teas from Medicinal Gardens
August 31, 2017



HERBAL TEAS IN AUSTERE SETTINGS


Herbal Products as Medicine

In long-term disaster settings, even prepared medics may end up using their entire supply of commercially-made medicines. As such, caregivers should consider the medicinal benefits of the plants in their own backyard as additional tools in the medical woodshed.

Due to their longevity, essential oils are probably some of the best natural products the medic can stockpile. Producing them, however, requires knowledge, experience, and equipment. In addition, you’ll need a lot of plant material. It takes 250 pounds of lavender flowers to make 1 kilogram of essential oil, and that’s if you have the right variety, soil conditions, weather conditions, and other factors in place.


It takes a lot of lavender to make a little essential oil

In the long haul, a more realistic option for sustainable herbal medicines is using fresh or dried plant materials in teas. These require little more than a garden and some knowledge regarding each herb, the parts of the plant used, and the medicinal effect.

It should be noted that the term “tea” is incorrect: The word actually refers to various drinks made from the leaves of one species, Camellia sinensis. Indeed, green, black, white, and oolong teas are made from the same plant; only the processing differs. The proper term for a drink made by steeping herbs in hot water would be an “herbal infusion” or “tisane“. For simplicity’s sake, though, we’ll call them teas.

Standard teas from Camellia Sinensis, like green, black, white, and oolong, are high in antioxidants with many health benefits ascribed to them. These include heart disease, type 2 diabetes, liver dysfunction, and more.


Making Teas


It’s easy to make tea

Making a tea is one of the simplest ways to prepare medicinal herbs. If you can boil water, you can brew tea. You just:
  • Bring some water to a roiling boil in a pot or other container.
  • Crush leaves, flowers, and/or roots, depending on the plant.
  • Pour the boiled water over 1 teaspoon of herbs and let steep for about five or ten minutes.
  • Keep a cover on while steeping.
  • Place a strainer over a cup and pour (alternatively, use a tea bag or “bob”).
  • Use honey or lemon to add flavor if desired.
A tea doesn’t always have to be ingested to be of benefit; some may be used as an eye wash, an irrigation solution for wounds, or in cold or warm compresses.

There are many herbs that can be made into a tea. Although some of the information below lacks hard scientific data, these teas were used by your ancestors for their medicinal benefits:

Alfalfa: The seeds and leaves contain vitamins A, C, E, and K, as well as calcium, phosphorous, iron, and potassium. It has been used as a diuretic to help urine flow and for upset stomachs. There are claims that it helps arthritis pain and may lower cholesterol. Use 1 to 2 teaspoons of dried leaves, steeped in 1 cup of boiling water, for 10-20 minutes.

Burdock: The dried root has been used in teas to help clear acne and to treat psoriasis. Use 2 tablespoons of fresh grated root or 1 tablespoon of well-dried root in 3 cups of boiling water.


catnip

Catnip: Leaves and flowers are used to treat intestinal cramping, indigestion, diarrhea, and other stomach ailments. Also thought to treat respiratory infections like the common cold. A substance in catnip called nepetalactone is thought to produce a mild sedative effect. Use 1 teaspoon of dried leaves or 1 tablespoon of fresh leaves per cup.

Chamomile: A favorite tea of many, it contains the amino acid Tryptophan, which gives it a sedative and relaxing effect. As such, it may help treat anxiety and insomnia. Antioxidants in chamomile may help slow down progression of visual, kidney, and nerve damage in diabetics. Â Use 2-3 teaspoons of dried flowers per cup.

Chicory: When supplies of coffee ran out, soldiers in the Civil War used the root of this common plant as a substitute. It lacks caffeine, though, and has more of a sedative than stimulant effect in large amounts. Chicory root has an effect against intestinal worms, and has been shown in animal studies to improve calcium absorption and bone mineral density. Scrape the bark off the root before drying; use 1 teaspoon to 1 cup of water. Tea made from leaves has a laxative effect.

Dandelion: You might be surprised to know that the common dandelion contains vitamins and minerals. Indeed, it’s thought to have more beta-carotene than a similar serving of carrots. Young flowers and leaves make a good tea for constipation (steep for 20 minutes). Roasting the roots produces a coffee-like drink; use 2 teaspoons dried chopped root in 1 cup of water.


echinacea

Echinacea: Well-known to decrease the duration of colds and flus, Echinacea boosts the immune system and may have some antiviral activity. Steep 1-2 teaspoons of leaf, flower, or ½ teaspoon of root to 1 cup of boiling water

Elder: Elderberry flowers make a tea that is used for many upper respiratory infections such as sinusitis, colds, flus, and laryngitis. Applied in a compress, the tea may be helpful for wound healing and some skin conditions.

The blue or purple berries are high in antioxidants and may be made into a juice or syrup: Put two pounds of elderberries and four cups of water and bring to a boil, then simmer for a half hour. Use a fine mesh strainer to press out the juice. Sugar may be added under medium heat to make a syrup.

Eucalyptus: Tea made from eucalyptus leaves offers relief from asthma as well as respiratory infections, mostly by opening airways and loosening thick mucus. It may have antibacterial and antiviral effects. Steep ½ teaspoon of dried or fresh leaves in 1-2 cups of water.

Ginger: The underground stems, or rhizomes, of Ginger are used to treat nausea of all types from morning sickness to motion sickness. Slice one inch of the rhizome into small pieces and simmer in two cups of water on low heat for 15 minutes. Then strain. ¼ – ½ teaspoon of ginger powder is another option.



ginseng root

Ginseng: Both Asian and American Ginseng root can be made into herbal teas that are thought to lower blood sugar levels, a useful benefit for those with diabetes. Simmer three to six teaspoons of the root for 45 minutes in three or four cups of water, then strain.

Lavender: Used in aromatherapy, lavender may improve nausea and other digestive symptoms when drunk as a tea. It’s thought to decrease migraine headaches and possibly limit convulsions and muscle spasms. Use 1 tablespoon of dried herb in 1 cup of water.

Lemon Balm: An herb with antiviral effects, it’s a member of the mint family. A tea made from lemon balm leaves and flowers was used in the past to treat mouth, throat, and dental infections like gingivitis and herpes sores. Also thought to decrease anxiety and aid sleep. Lemon balm may help improve intestinal spasms and nausea. 1 teaspoon of dried herb or 5-6 fresh leaves to one cup of boiling water makes a fine tea.

Licorice: Better known as an ingredient in candy, its coating properties may help with sore throats, coughs, and heartburn. Licorice can, however, raise blood pressure and should be avoided during pregnancy. Add 1-2 teaspoons of chopped root to 2 cups of boiling water to make a decoction. Drink ½ cup at a time.

Passionflower: Tea made from passionflower has a beneficial effect on anxiety and may serve as a sleep aid if taken regularly. Boil 1-2 teaspoons of herb (avoid the root) in 2 cups of water for 5-10 minutes.

Peppermint: A long-standing herbal remedy, tea made from peppermint calms the stomach and helps Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), but can worsen heartburn. The tea helps thin respiratory mucus and relieves nasal congestion. Put 1 teaspoon of dried herb or 6-8 fresh leaves over 1 cup of boiling water.

Rose: Rose “hips” make a tea with vitamin C, as well as calcium, selenium, zinc, manganese, and others. It boosts the immune system and is thought to be beneficial for the adrenal gland, responsible for the stress hormone cortisol. Boil 1 teaspoon of dried rose hips in water and steep for 20 minutes.


Sage leaves


Sage: Sage leaf tea is a time-honored remedy for sore throat as well as the common cold as a tea or gargle. It may also aid digestion and decrease cramping, and may even improve memory. Steep 1 teaspoon of dried leaves in one cup of water.

Stinging Nettle: Stinging nettle root is thought to have benefits as a diuretic to improve urine flow, even in those with enlarged prostates. The leaves may decrease the pain of arthritis in joints. Use 1 teaspoon dried leaves in 1 cup boiling water or boil 5 grams of dried root in 2 cups of water for 5-10 minutes.

St. John’s Wort: One of the few herbs that has known activity against minor depression, leading it to be called “herbal Prozac”. Beware of interactions with prescription drugs, however. Pour 1 cup of boiling water over 1 teaspoon herb.

Thyme: Teas made from thyme will loosen thick phlegm and may help coughs. It’s known to inhibit bacteria, viruses, and fungi, including many that cause respiratory infections. Steep 1 to 2 teaspoons of fresh or dried leaves in 1 cup of water.

Turmeric: This herb contains curcumin, an anti-inflammatory compound that may treat Crohn’s disease and other digestive tract issues. As well, it may have beneficial effects on joint pain due to rheumatoid arthritis and other disorders.

Valerian: The dried roots of this plant have been utilized for centuries to deal with anxiety and insomnia. It may even decrease the frequency of seizures in patients with epilepsy. Its mild sedative effect eases pain and promotes sleep. Avoid alcohol or sedative drugs.

Willow Bark: The green underbark of willow trees contain salicin, the original ingredient used to produce aspirin in the late 19th century. It is especially useful for muscle aches and joint pain. Simmer 1 teaspoon of bark in 1 cup of water for 10 minutes.

There is much research to be done to scientifically confirm all of the effects of these plants, and there may be other benefits not mentioned or yet discovered. As well, many other plants have medicinal effects other than the ones in the list above; you might know of some yourself. The herbs above, however, are easily made into teas that can be produced even while on the move.

In any case, learning the use of natural substances for their medicinal benefits will make the off-grid medic an effective provider even in the most remote settings.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/herbal-teas-from-medicinal-gardens/
 

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RADIATION THE INVISIBLE ENEMY 1957 CIVIL DEFENSE ATOMIC BOMB & FALLOUT FILM 44254
PeriscopeFilm


Published on Sep 5, 2017
Made in 1957-58 by the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization and the University of Michigan, "The Invisible Enemy" attempts to discuss the dangers of radioactive fallout and the need for fallout shelters. The film features a professor making a scientific lecture about radiation, its unseen powers, and lethal effects.

The film features images of geiger counters, atomic bomb blasts (3:56), research nuclear reactors (6:35), medical use of nuclear radiation (8:15) and more.

At 10:00, a simulated nuclear attack on Chicago is shown, and a radioactive cloud of fallout moves over the countryside. "This radioactive cloud begins to be carried by winds for hundreds of miles, it is literally a cloud bearing possible death for hundreds of thousands of people living below it!" Within three hours, residents of Battle Creek, Michigan will take sick with radiation poisoning without proper shelter. (Incidentally, the National Civil Defense Headquarters was located in Battle Creek and major population centers like Detroit were vital to American industry. )

At 15:00, the film begins discussing the use of personal fallout shelters for survival. The film suggests that the cost is estimated at $2500, and a series of civil defense brochures are available to assist the public in installing one. Techniques of building a shelter are seen with a happy father installing a shelter at the 18:40 mark in his home's basement.

The scientist concludes on this note: "For on your willingness and ability to protect yourself and the lives of those who depend on you, depends in turn, the future of the free world. This, ladies and gentlemen, is why we in the United States must from here on learn how to protect ourselves from fallout, the invisible enemy!"

You can read more about this film at this amazing atomic website:
http://www.atomictheater.com/theinvis...

This film is part of the Periscope Film LLC archive, one of the largest historic military, transportation, and aviation stock footage collections in the USA. Entirely film backed, this material is available for licensing in 24p HD, 2k and 4k. For more information visit http://www.PeriscopeFilm.com
 

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Hurricane Preparedness Tips: What You Need To Know
September 4, 2017




hurricane image by pixabay

Hurricane Irma, already a powerful storm, is steaming its way towards the Caribbean and the U.S. East Coast. With Texas and Louisiana still reeling in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey, it’s just one more reason to always be prepared for disasters.

You only have to read the news to know that hurricanes are dangerous, but they don’t have to be life-threatening for those who prepare. Unlike tornadoes, which can pop up suddenly, hurricanes are first identified when they are hundreds, if not thousands of miles away. We can watch their development and have a good idea of how bad the situation might become and how much time we have to get ready.

Even before it’s clear that your area is in danger of being hit by the storm, you should have considered factors like food, water, power, and shelter. Here are a few (actually, 28!) tips to help those preparing for the worst, while hoping for the best:


GETTING OUT OF DODGE


hurricane winds

Make a G.O.O.D. (Get Out Of Dodge) decision: Rugged individualists may want to ride out the storm, but as we learned from Harvey, coastal residents would be best served by hitting the road. When the authorities say it’s time to evacuate, you should be ready to go. Don’t forget to turn off the power, gas, and water before you leave.

Head Inland: Hurricanes gain their strength over warm ocean waters, and lose strength quickly as they get further into the interior. Therefore, the further inland you go, the safer you’ll be.

Have a “GO” bag: Always have a set of supplies ready to take with you on short notice. Non-perishable food, bottled water, extra clothing, flashlights and batteries, a NOAA weather radio, medicines, and a first aid kit are just a few of the items you should have ready at all times.

(you might see recommendations online to have a 72-hour supply, but this figure is arbitrary. A week’s worth would be even better.)

Have a portable cell phone charger: Communication is important, so have a car charger or other mobile method to power up the phone. Consider a small solar charger kit, like Goal Zero Venture 30 Solar Recharging Kit.

Have cash on hand: One power shortage you don’t want to experience is the loss of purchasing power. Power for credit card verification could be down after a hurricane; keep some cash on hand. Have small bills to prevent needing cash back that the store may not have available.

Let’s say you haven’t received an evacuation order, and you’re going to ride out the storm in place. Here are some considerations you want to take into account:

SHELTER


Not a good choice for a hurricane shelter

Without shelter, you’re at greater risk for a bad outcome in a hurricane. If you can’t leave the area, find a sturdy haven from the storm. Most buildings are required to withstand at least 90 mph winds (125 mph in South Florida), but for the strongest hurricanes, it’s best to find the nearest municipal shelter. f there isn’t time, most coastal municipalities will have designated a sturdy building as a hurricane shelter.

Put Up The Shutters: If you have hurricane shutters, put them up at least 24 hours before hurricane landfall. It’s no fun to have to stand on a ladder in gale force winds and pouring rain to install them. Been there, done that.

Move Furniture/Plants Inside: Move the patio furniture and potted plants indoors. If you can’t, chain them together against an outer wall downwind from the direction of the storm.

Prune Trees: Prune all trees near your home so that wind can easily flow through the crowns. Otherwise, expect some to be downed by the storm. Branches, fruit (in South Florida, coconuts!), and other debris can act as missiles in high winds.

Pick a “Safe Room”: If you have a basement, good for you. If not, choose a room in the interior of the home, preferably one without windows. Get the storm supplies into this area for safe keeping. Put a sharp axe in this room in case you must get out through the roof in a severe flooding.

Place candles in pans: Candles are handy, but they can be knocked over by winds and cause fires. If you must use them, stick them in a pan with shiny sides that would be deep enough to cover the flame.

Have Tarps at the Ready: Large tarps can be used to cover windows and, after the storm, to cover any areas of the roof that might have been damaged. Keep extra rolls of plastic sheeting and duct tape to secure broken windows or doors.

Come to the local municipal shelter with a full stomach, blankets, and a favorite pillow: Meals and other comforts may be limited in supply. Supplies for that infant or toddler, like diapers and formula, will likely be scarce. Also, inquire as to whether the county shelter accepts and has supplies for pets.

FOOD


Keep food cold


Keep it Cold: Have the refrigerator and freezer down to their coldest settings so that food will stay fresh longer. Go shopping as early as possible and get non-perishable food items as staples for long-term.


Collect Ice: Collect ice in plastic bags or empty plastic containers and place them among refrigerated foods to prolong freshness. Empty plastic soda bottles/milk jugs will do in a pinch. The fuller the fridge is with ice, the longer the items in it will stay cool.

Wrap It in Foil: Wrap food items in aluminum foil, eliminating air pockets, and cram the foil packs together as closely as possible.

Cook ‘Em and Freeze ‘Em: Cook meats before the hurricane gets close and freeze them. As cooking requires fuel, have some full propane tanks or charcoal briquettes in your supplies for when the power goes out.

Eat the Perishables Now: Eat the perishable food first, canned foods later. Make sure to have a manual can opener, paper plates, cups and plastic utensils. Have a plan so you can cook food and boil water after the storm and the electricity is out. Fuel (as mentioned above), a small portable stove or grill and appropriate pans will be needed.

Keep It Closed: Don’t leave the refrigerator door open while deciding what food to take out. Visualize where a particular item is and then open the door. Close it as quickly as possible.


WATER


Flood waters won’t be this clean


Water, Water everywhere: Have a stockpile of 5-gallon bottles of water or a plentiful supply of smaller bottles. After the storm, don’t expect that flood waters will be clean enough to drink.

Fill the Tub: Fill all bathtubs with water. You might think this is overkill, but every member of your family needs 1 gallon of water per day. It goes fast, even faster if you use it to keep clean.

Drink the Melted Ice: As the ice you refrigerated in containers melts, don’t waste it. Use it as an additional source of drinking water.

Hot Water Heaters Hold…Water!: Hot water heaters have gallons and gallons of drinkable water; don’t hesitate to raid them if you get low. First, turn off the electricity or gas. Attach a hose to the drain valve and release the vacuum in the tank by opening a hot water faucet. There might be some sediment at the bottom that should be filtered or drained out first.

Purify It: Have some household bleach available to purify questionable water (like from the water heater). 12-16 drops per gallon should do the job. It takes a while, so wait 30 minutes before drinking, shaking the water container to aerate will make the water taste better.

Have A Water Filter: Handheld filters like the Lifestraw or Sawyer Mini, or larger ones like the Berkey can be useful to deal with cloudy water. Using a cotton cloth will help get out the dirt and debris before using the commercial filter.

OTHER IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS

The Kids: Have board games, toys, and books to keep the children’s minds off scary winds. If you’re evacuating, let kids bring their favorite stuffed animals, blanket, or pillow to keep them calm. Give each child their own flashlight to use.

Your Other Kids: Don’t forget to take into account the needs of your pets. Have food, water, and their favorite toy available, whether you leave or stay at home.

Your Other, Other Kid: Make sure your car is in good working order and filled with gas. Already, there’s a run on gas at South Florida gas stations in advance of Hurricane Irma. An extra supply in gas cans will be useful in case of a shortage at the pumps, and can be used to run generators (although never inside).

Important Documents: Place important papers like birth certificates, passports, insurance documents, and others in waterproof containers. Scan them and send them in an email to yourself and keep a few memory sticks in waterproof bags in different areas of the house, a safe and/or on yourself.

Keep The Radio On: A NOAA weather radio, battery-powered, solar powered or hand-cranked, will be an important source of information on the progress of the storm, and for community updates. Have solar or battery powered flashlights (and extra batteries) and lanterns (inflatable ones are very safe).

No Outside Selfies During The Storm! A number of preventable deaths occur during or in the early aftermath of a hurricane due to foolish choices. Flood waters, downed power lines, and high winds are just some of the ways that lives end unnecessarily.

Here is our Flood Safety Article: https://www.doomandbloom.net/13-flood-safety-tips/


Beware of flood waters

Being prepared for a hurricane can make sure that a hurricane is just a bump in the road, and not the end of the road for you and your family. Have a plan of action, get some supplies, use your common sense, and you’ll weather the storm.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/hurricane-preparedness-tips/
 

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How to Apply a Tourniquet: SOF-TQ
DrBones NurseAmy


Published on Sep 4, 2017
Easy step by step instructions on how to use and place a tourniquet: SOF-TQ. Learning about tourniquets requires more than just application. Please see the first video in this series "10 Critical Principles of Tourniquet Use" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zI5j..., to learn much more. "High and Tight" application occurs if you are still under fire & unable to expose wounds. Video by Amy Alton, ARNP of https://www.doomandbloom.net/
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How to Handle Dental Emergencies In Survival Situations
September 13, 2017



How to Handle Dental Emergencies In Survival Situations
(This article by Joe Alton MD was first published in MD Creekmore’s thesurvivalistblog.net)


Dental Trauma

Medical preparedness is an important part of surviving a disaster scenario and, indeed, many believe that they can handle any emergency if the grid goes down. For those who are trained to stabilize and transport, that may be true for typical injuries due to trauma. The true survival medic, however, is the end of the line for medical care, not a way-station to a modern medical facility.

That means long-term care. I often encounter folks who believe that they’re medically prepared, and they are, for a disaster that means a few days or even weeks without power. There are issues that crop up after months or longer off the grid; some of those are dental issues.

If you’ve spent a day at work with a toothache, you know that you weren’t at 100% efficiency, which is where you need to be in a survival situation. The medic needs to be able to handle dental emergencies as well as medical ones.

Despite this, few people who are otherwise medically prepared seem to devote much time to dental health. Today’s dentists have high technology on their side, but this technology will not be available if things go South. Therefore, we look to historical methods of treating these problems. Of these issues, some will be related to trauma

Dental trauma may appear in various forms. After an injury to the oral cavity, a person may have:
· a portion of a tooth chipped or broken off (a dental fracture)
· a loose tooth (a dental subluxation)
· a tooth knocked out completely (a dental avulsion)

Save
The anatomy of the tooth is relatively simple for such an important part of our body and is worth reviewing. The part of the tooth that you see above the gum line is called the “crown”. Below it, you have the “root”. The bony socket that the tooth resides in is called the “alveolus”. Teeth are anchored to the alveolar bone with ligaments, just like you have ligaments holding together your ankle or shoulder.
  • The tooth is composed of different materials:
  • Enamel: The hard white external covering of the tooth crown.
  • Dentin: bony yellowish material under the enamel that surrounds the pulp.
  • Pulp: connective tissue with blood vessels and nerves endings in the central portion of the tooth.
DENTAL FRACTURES

When a portion of a tooth is broken off, it is categorized based on the number of layers of the tooth that are exposed. Classically, dentists have referred to these as Ellis class 1, 2, and 3 fractures.



Ellis 1 fractures
: In an Ellis 1 fracture, only the enamel has been broken and no dentin or pulp is exposed. This is only a problem if there is a sharp edge to the tooth. You can consider filing the edge smooth or using a mixture of Oil of Cloves, also known as Eugenol, and Zinc Oxide powder as a temporary cement.



Ellis 2 fractures:
Ellis 2 fractures show yellow or beige dentin under the enamel. This area may be sensitive and should be covered if possible. The composition of dentin is different than enamel and bacteria may enter and infect the tooth. This is especially the case with pediatric dental trauma.



Ellis 3 fractures: Here the pulp and dentin are both exposed, and Ellis 3 fractures can be quite uncomfortable. If the pulp is exposed, it may bleed. Protective coverings will be most necessary here, and the risks of permanent damage most likely, especially in a collapse.

When you identify a fracture of a tooth, you should evaluate the patient for associated damage, such as to the face, inside of the cheek, tongue, and jaw. Sometimes, a tooth fragment may be lodged in the soft tissues and must be removed with instruments. There is likely to be blood due to the trauma, so thoroughly clean out the inside of the mouth so you can fully assess the situation. Then, using your gloved hand or a cotton applicator, lightly touch the injured tooth to see if it is loose.

For sensitive Ellis II fractures of dentin, cover the exposed surface with a calcium hydroxide composition (commercially sold as “Dycal”), a Fluoride varnish (Fluoride is rarely beneficial in drinking water, in my opinion, but is acceptable as a direct application to the tooth defect) or even clear nail polish to decrease sensitivity. Provide pain medications and instruct the patient to avoid hot and cold food or drink.

Ellis III fractures into pulp are trouble, due to the risk of infection, among other reasons. Calcium hydroxide on the pulp surface with an additional temporary cement can be used as coverings. Provide analgesics and antibiotics. Penicillin and Doxycycline are options. Despite all this, the prognosis is not favorable without modern dental intervention.



A particularly difficult dental fracture involves the root. Sometimes, it is not until the gum is peeled back that a fracture in the root is identified. If this is the case, the tooth is likely unsalvageable (especially in vertical fractures) and, in a power-down situation, should be extracted.


TEETH KNOCKED LOOSE OR OUT

A tooth that is knocked loose but not out of its socket is called a “subluxation”. Use your gloved fingers or a cotton applicator lightly to identify it. Often, these injuries will appear to bleed slightly from the border between the tooth and gum.

Minimal trauma may require no major intervention, although the tooth may benefit from support. The loose tooth should be pressed back into the alveolus (socket) and “splinted” to neighboring teeth for stability.

Dentists use wire or special materials for this purpose, but you might have to use soft wax if professional help is not at hand. If you can, use enough wax to anchor the loose tooth to neighboring teeth both in front and in back.

Prevent further trauma by placing your patient on a liquid diet for a time. Puddings, gelatins, or soft cereals are also ok. Occasionally, the trauma may be severe enough to completely knock the tooth out of its socket. This is called an “avulsion”.

The most favorable situation when a tooth is knocked out is when it comes out in one piece, including the root and ligaments. In this circumstance, time is a very important factor in possible treatment success. If the tooth is not replaced or preserved in a solution, the success of re-implantation drops 1% every minute the tooth is not in its socket.



A good preservative for teeth that have been knocked out is “Hank’s Solution”. This is a balanced salt solution that has been used to culture living cells, and it helps protect raw ligament fibers for a time. Hank’s Solution is available commercially as “Save-a-Tooth”.

If you are not at your retreat at the time of injury:
-Find the tooth
-Pick it up by the crown, avoid touching the root as it will damage already-compromised ligament fibers.
-Flush the tooth clean of dirt and debris with water or saline solution. Don’t scrub it, as it will further damage the ligaments.
-If you don’t have preservation solution, place the tooth in milk, saline solution, or saliva (put it between your cheek and gums or under your tongue). This will keep the ligament cells viable longer than plain water.

If the tooth has been out for less than fifteen minutes, you may attempt to re-implant it. Flush the tooth and the empty socket with Hank’s solution (Save-a-Tooth). Replace the tooth, hold in place for five minutes, and make sure the tooth is level with its neighbors. Cover with cotton or gauze, and have the patient bite down firmly to keep it in place. After a while, splint the tooth with soft wax to the teeth on either side for support.

Place your patient on a liquid diet and consider antibiotics such as Penicillin (Veterinary equivalent: Fish-Pen) or doxycycline (Bird-Biotic) to prevent infection. Antibiotics and their veterinary equivalents are discussed in detail in The Survival Medical Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way or at Doom and Bloom. If the tooth has been out longer than 15 minutes, you may have to soak the tooth for a half hour or so in Hank’s Solution before you replace it.

The longer you wait to replace the tooth, the more painful it will likely be to replace, so make sure you have pain meds available in your supplies.

After a couple of hours of being out, the ligament fibers dry out and die, and the tooth is for most intents and purposes dead. Replacing it at this point is likely to be unsuccessful, as the pulp will decay like all dead soft tissue does.

This causes a chronic inflammation causing the dead tooth (which may turn dark in color) to scar down into its bony socket, almost like a dental implant. This is called “Ankylosis”. Don’t replace “baby teeth”,
because the scarring process may prevent the permanent teeth from emerging.

It’s important to know that, in mature permanent teeth, the pulp rarely, if ever, survives the injury even if the ligaments do. As such, without the availability of root canal procedures to remove dead tissue, even your best efforts may be unsuccessful. If a serious infection arises in the dead pulp, your patient may be in a worse situation than just missing a tooth.

In the end, some cases of dental trauma may result in an unsalvageable tooth. Dental extraction may be necessary. Indeed, 90% of dental emergencies were, in the past, dealt with by extraction. In a survival situation, this may be your best option to prevent complications.

In future articles, I will go over the process by which a tooth may be extracted. For this, a good dental kit will be an important tool in the medical woodshed.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/dental-trauma-emergencies/
 

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7 Serious Infections from Contaminated Food and Water
September 18, 2017



7 Serious Infections from Contaminated Food and Water


Just Hanging Out (and I mean just hanging out)

Recently, I watched a few episodes of “Naked and Afraid“, a series that puts two individuals in extreme environments with few supplies and, for some reason, no clothes. In this program, many of the participants come down with various infections; some of which cause bowel disturbances. Life then becomes, well, even more miserable than walking around for three weeks naked in the jungle.

Epidemics characterized by diarrhea and dehydration have been a part of the human experience since before recorded history. Cholera is an example of one particularly dangerous infection that was epidemic in the past. It and other bacterial diseases, many of which are now rare, may once again become a problem in the uncertain future.

Off the grid, water quality is questionable and may lead to misfortune if not properly purified. Using bad water to cook food in a remote setting can also lead to major problems that manifest as diarrhea, and later, dehydration. When dehydration is not treated, deaths may occur.


typical bacteria

Many diseases with diarrhea as the main symptom are caused by poor sanitation. These including the following:

Cholera: Caused by CTX, a toxin produced by the marine and freshwater bacterium Vibrio cholera. Cholera toxins produce a rapid onset of diarrhea and vomiting within a few hours to 2 days of infection. This was a major issue in Haiti after the earthquake there several years ago.

The diarrhea caused by cholera looks like water after rice has been cooked in it. In addition, victims complain of nausea, leg cramps, and other symptoms. The body water loss with cholera is so severe that it is associated with a sixty per cent death rate if untreated. Aggressive efforts to rehydrate the patient, however, drops the death rate to only one per cent. Antibiotic therapy with doxycycline or tetracycline seems to shorten the duration of illness.


typhus rash (brittanica.com)

Typhoid (and Typhus): Salmonella typhi is a bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae family that is found in contaminated and undercooked food. The illness it causes is called “typh-oid fever” because it often confused with Typhus.

Typhus is a complex of diseases caused by bacteria in the Rickettsia family that is transmitted, not by contaminated food and water, but by fleas and ticks in unsanitary surroundings. Although it rarely causes severe diarrhea, Typhus can cause severe dehydration due to high fevers and other flu-like symptoms. Five to nine days after infection, a rash begins on the torso and spreads to the extremities, sparing the face, palm, and soles. Doxycycline is the drug of choice for this disease.


Typhoid rash (emergencymedicinecases.com)

Contamination with Salmonella in food (leading to typhoid fever) occurs more often than with any other bacteria in the United States, with a major outbreak in turkey meat causing more than 100 hospitalizations in 2011. In Typhoid fever, there is a gradual onset of high fevers over the course of several days. Abdominal pain, intestinal hemorrhage, weakness, headaches, and bloody diarrhea may occur. A number of people develop a spotty, rose-colored rash, hence the confusion with typhus. Ciprofloxacin is the antibiotic of choice, but most victims improve just with rehydration therapy.

Dysentery: Caused by a number of different pathogens (disease-causing organisms), dysentery is an inflammation of the large intestine that presents with fever, abdominal pain, and severe bloody or watery diarrhea. Symptoms usually begin one to three days after exposure. Dysentery was a major cause of death among Civil War soldiers. It is a classic example of a disease that can be simply prevented with strict hand hygiene after bowel movements.


civil war hospital

The most common form of dysentery in North America and Europe is caused by the bacteria Shigella and is called “bacillary dysentery”. It is spread through contaminated food and water in crowded unsanitary conditions. Ciprofloxacin and Sulfa drugs, in conjunction with oral rehydration, are effective therapies.


Another type of dysentery is caused by an organism you may have read about in science class: the amoeba, a protozoan known as Entamoeba histolytica. Amoebic dysentery is more commonly seen in warmer climates. Metronidazole is the antibiotic of choice.

Traveler’s Diarrhea: An inflammation of the small intestine most commonly caused by the Bacterium Escherichia coli, commonly known as E. coli. Most strains of this bacteria are normal inhabitants of the human intestinal tract, but one (E. coli O157:H7) produces a toxin (the “Shiga” toxin) that can cause severe food poisoning. The Shiga toxin is so potentially dangerous that it has been classified as a bioterror agent.

In this illness, sudden onset of watery diarrhea, often with blood, develops within one to three days of exposure accompanied by fever, gas, and abdominal cramping. Rapid rehydration and treatment with antibiotics such as Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin is helpful. The CDC no longer recommends taking antibiotics in advance of a journey, however, but does suggest that Pepto-Bismol or Kaopectate (Bismuth Subsalicylate), two tablets four times a day, may decrease the likelihood of Traveler’s Diarrhea.

Campylobacter: The second most common cause of foodborne illness in the U.S. after Salmonella, this bacterium resides in the intestinal tract of chickens and causes sickness when meat is undercooked or improperly processed. It’s thought that a significant percentage of retail poultry products contain colonies of one particular variety, Campylobacter jejuni. Symptoms include bloody diarrhea, fever, nausea, and cramping which begins two to five days after exposure. Although controversial, Erythromycin may decrease the duration of illness if taken early.

Trichinosis: Trichinosis is Caused by the parasitic roundworm Trichinella in undercooked meat, mostly from domesticated pigs. Trichinosis causes diarrhea and other intestinal symptoms one to two days after exposure. Fever, headache, itchiness, muscle pains, and swelling around the eyes occur as much as 2 weeks later. Recovery is usually slow, even with treatment with the anti-helminthic drugs Mebendazole and Albendazole (Albenza).


beautiful, but could harbor giardia

Giardiasis: The most common disease-causing parasite in the world is the protozoa Giardia lamblia. It has even been found in backcountry waters in many national parks in the U.S. Symptoms may present as early as one day after exposure, although it more commonly presents in one to two weeks. Patients complain of watery diarrhea, abdominal cramping, violent (often called “projectile”) vomiting, and gas. Metronidazole is the drug of choice in conjunction with oral rehydration.

There are many other pathogens that can cause diarrheal disease and dehydration if untreated. Although we have listed antibiotics in this article (many of which you can read about in this website), most of the above will resolve on their own over time with strict attention to oral (or intravenous) rehydration. Without hydration support, however, the situation may become life-threatening in some cases.

An important point is that some of these illnesses may be mimicked by viruses that are unaffected by antibiotics, such as norovirus, so employ them only when absolutely necessary. The U.S. is in the midst of an epidemic of antibiotic resistance that is partly due to overuse in humans. You might be surprised when I say “partly”; close to 80% of antibiotics in the U.S. are given, not to humans, but to food-producing livestock.


recipients of most antibiotics

If you see post-apocalyptic disaster movies, you’ll see a lot of gunfights at the OK corral. Certainly, this may occur in the aftermath of a major catastrophe. The most deaths will occur, however, due to failure to assure that water is clean, food is prepared properly, and human waste is safely disposed. The medic for a survival group must understand this and enforce good sanitary practices. If he/she is successful, the group will have a better chance of staying healthy even in the worst of situations.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/7-serious-infections-from-contaminated-food-and-water/
 

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Earthquake Safety: What You Need To Know
September 20, 2017



EARTHQUAKE SAFETY


Scene from 1985 earthquake that killed 10000

A 7.1 magnitude earthquake struck Mexico City on Tuesday, September 19, collapsing buildings, killing at least 250, and injuring hundreds more throughout the region. The latest tremor event came hard on the heels of an 8.1 magnitude quake off the coast just 2 weeks ago, which killed almost 100 and even generated a small tsunami wave. Various aftershocks measuring up to 4.9 have been recorded since Tuesday’s quake hit at 1 pm local time.

Although there is no “season” for earthquakes like there is for hurricanes, yesterday’s tremors occurred on the exact date that a 1985 event killed close to 10,000 Mexicans in the capitol.

The United States, especially (but not exclusively) the West Coast, is also susceptible to natural disasters like earthquakes. Indeed, just a few days ago, citizens in Los Angeles experienced 3.6 magnitude tremors, but no deaths or major damage was reported.

FAULT LINES AND MAGNITUDE SCALES

The West Coast and some areas of the Midwest are located over what we call “fault lines“. A fault is a fracture in a volume of base rock in the earth’s crust. Mexico City itself is not located on a fault line, but sits on an old lake bed that amplifies nearby tremors. This disrupts buildings that were constructed on the surface, making them prone to collapse.

Earthquakes have been blamed on climate change by some, but the movement of the earth’s plates occurs miles below the surface. This shifting releases a tremendous amount of energy, sometimes referred to as a “seismic wave”.

The strength of the Mexican earthquakes have measured using something called the “Richter scale“. This measurement (from 0-10 or, theoretically, more) identifies the magnitude of tremors at a certain location. Quakes less than 2.0 on the Richter scale are common occurrences unlikely to be noticed by the average person. Each increase of 1.0 magnitude, however, increases the strength by a factor of 10. The highest-intensity earthquake ever recorded was The Great Chilean Earthquake of 1960 (9.5 on the Richter scale).

Most people have heard of the Richter Scale and assume that all earthquakes are measured using it. However, a newer measurement, the Moment Magnitude scale, is thought to be more accurate for higher intensity quakes. The Moment Magnitude scale calculates each point of magnitude as releasing more than 30 times the energy of the previous one.

If the fault lines shift offshore, a “tsunami” or tidal wave may be generated. In Fukushima, the 2011 earthquake (8.9 magnitude) spawned a large tsunami which caused major damage, loss of life, and meltdowns in local nuclear reactors. Tsunami warning were issued for both the Japanese and Ecuadorian earthquakes reported this week. The tsunami generated by the quake 2 weeks ago off the coast of Mexico was only 2.3 feet, however.

AN EARTHQUAKE SURVIVAL PLAN

A major earthquake is especially dangerous due to its unpredictability. Although researchers are working to find ways to determine when a quake will hit, there is usually little warning. This fact makes having a plan of action (before an earthquake hits) a major factor in your chances of survival.

This plan of action has to be shared with each family member, even the children. It’s unlikely that a disaster will occur at the moment that the entire clan is together. Unless the earthquake happens in the dead of night, it’s unlikely everyone will be together in the house. You might be at work, your spouse at home, and the kids at school. An important part of an earthquake survival plan is making everyone aware of where to meet. It could be your home, or perhaps more sturdy public buildings like a school or office building that might be earthquake-resistant. In any case, knowing where to meet in the event of (really, any) disaster will give you the best chance of gathering your family and surviving together.

EARTHQUAKE SUPPLIES


Have a good medical kit

To be prepared, you’ll need, at the very least, the following supplies:
  • Food and water (including water filters like the LifeStraw, Mini-Sawyer, and Katadyn)
  • Power sources like batteries, solar rechargers, and generators
  • Medical supplies and medicines
  • Tents, sleeping bags, and other camping equipment
  • Clothing appropriate to the weather
  • Fire extinguishers
  • A tool kit, including an adjustable wrench to turn off gas, water, etc.
  • Means of communication like cell phones, walkie-talkies, radios
  • Cash! (don’t count on credit or debit cards if the power’s down)
  • Copies of important documents, including insurance policies
(these supplies are discussed in detail in the latest edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way.

In areas at risk for earthquakes, the school system and municipal authorities usually have formulated a disaster plan. They may even have designated a quake-proof shelter; this may be the best place to go. Make certain to inquire about your town’s precautions in case of a seismic event.

Besides the general supplies listed above, it would be wise to put together a separate “get-home” bag to keep at work or in the car. Nonperishable food, liquids, and a pair of sturdy, comfortable shoes are useful items to include in this kit.

HOME EARTHQUAKE SAFETY

In the home, it’s important to know where your gas, electric, and water main shutoffs are. Make sure that everyone of age knows how to turn them off if there is a leak or electrical short. Know where the nearest medical facility is, but be aware that you may be on your own; medical responders are going to be overwhelmed and may not get to you quickly. In addition, roads may be impassible due to damage or traffic snarls.


Something you shouldn’t stand under during an earthquake

A good look around your house might identify fixtures like chandeliers and bookcases too unstable to withstand an earthquake. Examine cabinets for heavy objects on high shelves, and replace them to bottom shelves where they will help with stabilization.


In the family room, flat screen TVs, especially large ones, could easily topple. Be sure to check out kitchen and pantry shelves for glass objects or pots and pans that could topple. In the bedroom, check the stability of anything that might be hanging over the headboard of your bed and could fall on you as a result of a nighttime quake.

WHEN THE EARTHQUAKE HITS


3 words to remember when an earthquake hits

What should you do when the tremors start? When things start shaking, you’ll have to keep a cool head and, if indoors, get under a table, desk, or something else solid and hold on. Cover may protect you from falling objects. This strategy is called “Drop, Cover, Hold“. If hard cover isn’t available, even a mattress could serve as a shield. If no cover is available at all, considering heading to the corner of an inside wall.

Of course, you might choose to run out of the building. You’re more stable, however, on your knees than standing or running, so get down to prevent a fall from causing injuries. While the building is shaking, don’t try to run out (especially if you’re on an upper floor); you could easily fall down stairs or get hit by falling debris. Don’t try to use elevators. You should stay clear of windows, shelves, and kitchen areas.

It’s often taught that you should stand in the doorway because of the frame’s sturdiness. It turns out, however, that in modern homes, doorways aren’t much more solid than any other part of the structure. Even if it were, you could still get hit by falling objects.

Once the initial tremors are over, go outside. Once there, stay as far out in the open as possible, away from power lines, chimneys, walls, and anything else that could fall on top of you.

IN YOUR CAR

You could, possibly, be in your automobile when the earthquake hits. Get out of traffic as quickly as possible; other drivers are likely to be less level-headed than you are. Don’t stop your car under bridges, trees, overpasses, power lines, or light posts. They’re likely to topple in a major quake. Stay in your vehicle while the tremors are active; turn on the radio to find out more about the event.



AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE

Even after the tremors stop, there are still dangers. Gas leaks are one issue to be concerned about; make sure you don’t use your camp stoves, lighters, or even matches until you’re certain all is clear (and, certainly, never inside). Even a match could ignite a spark that could lead to an explosion. If you turned the gas off, you might consider letting the utility company turn it back on.

Buildings that have structural damage may be unstable or have loose concrete which could rain down on the unsuspecting. Falling stone from damaged buildings killed rescuers in the Oklahoma City bombing and the World Trade Towers collapse.

Power may be down, and many will be tempted to use generators. It’s important that generators are used, not just outside, but well away from the interior of the home. A family of four in Florida after Hurricane Irma was hospitalized when a generator was used outside but too closely to the home’s entrance.

Don’t count on telephone service after a natural disaster. Telephone companies only have enough lines to deal with 20% of total call volume at any one time. It’s likely a much higher percentage of lines will be occupied after a disaster. Interestingly, this doesn’t seem to apply to texts; you’ll have a better chance to communicate by texting than by voice due to the wavelength used.

That cell phone will also come in handy if you’re trapped under rubble after an earthquake. Voice calls or texts might alert rescue personnel to your plight. If you live in quake country, you might consider a whistle on your keychain. It’s loud and will last longer than your voice as a signal for help. Don’t give up if help doesn’t arrive immediately; people can live several days without water, and much longer without food. With any luck, rescuers will find you.

Even if you have been injured, your house, even if earthquake-resistant, will probably require some cleanup. Remember to wear sturdy shoes, work gloves, and protective goggles while you’re picking up after the quake. Enter damaged buildings at your own risk, and look before your step.

Joe Alton, MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/earthquake-safety-what-you-need-to-know/
 

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Survival Medicine Hour: Post-Irma, Floods, Shoulder Dislocation
September 21, 2017



Survival Medicine Hour #354


close shave #1: Gatlinburg, Nov. 2106

This Survival Medicine Hour 9/15: Hurricane Irma has wreaked havoc on Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, and our hosts Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr.Bones and Nurse Amy have now had two different homes survive destruction in a year: Their place in Gatlinburg on Ski Mountain, where 100 homes burned to the foundation last November as part of a huge human-set wildfire, and now their home in South Florida from Hurricane Irma’s winds. We’ll talk about flood survival and give you some tips on what to do in the aftermath of storms like Harvey and Irma.


close shave #2: Irma

Also, your shoulder is the most flexible of your joints, but also the least stable and most likely to be dislocated by trauma. Find out more about how to recognize and treat this painful but common wilderness and off-grid injury.


shoulder joint: most flexible, least stable

To Listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/09/15/survival-medicine-hour-irma-floods-shoulder-dislocation


Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

https://www.doomandbloom.net/survival-medicine-hour-post-irma-floods-shoulder-dislocation/
 

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Save a Life! Know the Facts of Stroke vs. Bell's Palsy (Natural Remedies) - Dr. Alan Mandell, D.C.
motivationaldoc


Streamed live 6 hours ago
How to determine if someone is having a stroke that is life threatening vs. paralysis of the face as in bell's palsy.
 

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Survival Medicine Hour: Earthquake, Birthing Supplies, Hemorrhage, More
September 22, 2017



Survival Medicine Hour #355


earthquake damage

What would you have done if you were in Mexico City during the recent earthquakes? Is there anything that might have increased your chances of survival? In this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour, hosts Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP talk about earhtquakes in general and give you safety tips that could save a life.


birthing supplies

Plus, what supplies would you need for delivering a baby and caring for a pregnancy in tough times? Nurse Amy put on her Expert Council hat from Jack Spirko’s Survival Podcast to answer a listener’s question. In addition, one of our readers sends us an entertaining story about her son’s hornet sting and some natural remedies she uses for her allergy-prone family.


Bleeding wound

Lastly, is it time to add a 4th R to Reading, ‘Riting, ‘Rithmetic in school curriculums? Should Reduce hemorrhage classes be talk in view of the risk of injury during natural disasters, shooter events, even car crashes? Sounds crazy, but would it save a life?

All this and more in the latest episode of The Survival Medicine Hour with Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy! To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/09/22/survival-medicine-hour-earthquakes-first-aid-hornets-birthing-supplies


BTW, you can follow us at twitter @preppershow, YouTube at DrBones NurseAmy channel, and Facebook at our Doom and Bloom page or our survival medicine group “survival medicine dr bones nurse amy”

Thanks!

Don’t forget to check our medical kits and supplies at store.doomandbloom.net, plus our latest edition of The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way, available at Amazon and on this website.

https://www.doomandbloom.net/earthquake-birthing-supplies-more/
 

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The Case For Teaching Bleeding Control in Classrooms
DrBones NurseAmy


Published on Sep 26, 2017
Basic first aid techniques and how to stop and control bleeding should be taught in classrooms from K-12 grades. We need more trained Good Samaritans in this world. Hosted by Joe Alton, MD
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Can Churches Be Made Safe Again?
September 28, 2017



church safety


A gunman entered the Burnette Chapel Church of Christ in Antioch, Tennessee, killing one and injuring several others at a September 24th Sunday religious service. This heinous act of violence in a place of worship underscores the need for a strategy that churches can implement to keep congregants safe.

There is no place where crowds gather that is immune to the bad intentions of a disgruntled, deranged, or politically-motivated individual. Therefore, a culture of situational awareness must be instilled in every citizen. This attitude of calm vigilance is especially needed in religious venues.

Unfortunately, not all pastors prioritize church safety at the level needed in this toxic climate. The premise that their ministry is based on peace fails to take into account that there are those who consider places of worship to be “soft”targets. In this era of active shooters and anti-Christian feeling, pastors must make sure their flock is safe, just like any shepherd. In the New Normal, it’s has become part of the job description.

In my role as medical preparedness writer, it’s my mission to help the average citizen promote the well-being of loved ones in disasters. Lately, I’ve written about hurricanes and earthquakes, but shooter events like the one in Antioch are also instances where mass casualties can occur. These casualties might be minimized with a plan of action and quick action.

Large churches may choose to hire security professionals and install video surveillance technology. Smaller and less affluent churches, however, might benefit by establishing what I call a “safety ministry“. This group should be comprised of parishioners who have some security experience, such as active and former law enforcement, military veterans, and carefully selected others. Members should evaluate the layout of the church and grounds for weak spots and organize a plan of action for calling 911 and other measures when needed.

This goal might best be accomplished with the cooperation and assistance of local police. They can help train church members in how to identify the behavior of possible perpetrators of violence. The pastoral staff should be actively involved in this training to assess liability issues that might arise, and to insure that the safety ministry is not perceived as a “goon squad”.

The call for volunteers for such a ministry should be made publicly and their purpose should be frankly (but calmly) explained so as to emphasize their benefits to all those attending the church. The formation of a security group in private might otherwise tend to cause concern instead of reassurance.

A simple way to avoid or abort acts of violence in places of worship is the placement of friendly but visible “greeters” or ushers at church entrances. These people can look for anomalies, such as someone inappropriately dressed for the weather. If a person seeking entry is wearing an overcoat in hot weather, it could be because they are concealing a weapon. Having greeters outside could also make it easier to identify those acting nervously, loitering in the parking lot, or otherwise exhibiting suspicious behavior.

Safety ministry personnel should have the ability to close and lock doors to prevent a gunman from entering. Conversely, they can also open all the exits that could be used to direct congregants out of harm’s way when necessary. Ushers can also look for packages left behind that might hide an explosive device.


In an active shooter event, multiple casualties are incurred, leaving wounded and bleeding victims at the scene. Safety Ministry personnel should have training on how to stop bleeding and equipment such as first aid kits geared to help them accomplish this goal. Indeed, the church might consider arranging such training for their entire congregation.

Although this article is geared towards security during services, a plan of action should be organized for other times during the week as well, and certainly for youth group meetings and other activities sponsored by the church.

Of course, the elephant in the room is the question as to whether non-professional security personnel should be armed. I can’t give you the answer. This is a decision that must be made taking local laws, risk levels, and the wishes of the congregation into consideration.

Sadly, I envision a future where safety ministries are standard operating procedure for our places of worship. Additionally, I predict that first aid kits will be fixtures next to the fire extinguishers on the walls of every place where crowds gather.

It may be a major challenge to protect people of faith these days, but preparing for untoward events should be the responsibility of every pastor and congregant. With a plan of action, they’ll have the best chance to keep our churches safe in the uncertain future.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/can-churches-be-made-safe-again/
 

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Survival Medicine Hour: Church Safety, Rehydration Salts, Pregnancy Issues Off Grid
October 2, 2017




church shootings

Joe and Amy Alton are concerned about natural disasters, but man-made mass casualties can be caused by active shooters, such as the one in Las Vegas, and they’re now targeting our churches. A plan of action to ensure the safety of congregants should be established for every church, and the Altons have some suggestions in this episode of the Survival Medicine Hour.

Also, after a disaster, you’re told to be fruitful and multiply, but having a lot of women pregnant early in the aftermath could take away productive members of your group and put them at risk for complications that, in the early days of this country, cost women their lives. A discussion of the kinds of issues that could cause headaches and heartaches for the survival medic.

A bonus: A question on the use of oral rehydration salts in underdeveloped countries from a listener of Jack Spirko’s Survival Podcast, of which the Altons are members of the Expert Council.

All this and more on the latest Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton MD, aka Dr. Bones, and Amy Alton ARNP, aka Nurse Amy!

To Listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/09/29/survival-medicine-hour-pregnancy-issues-church-safety-rehydration-more

Follow us on twitter @preppershow, Facebook at Doom and Bloom, and Youtube at “DrBones NurseAmy”

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

https://www.doomandbloom.net/surviv...-rehydration-salts-pregnancy-issues-off-grid/
 

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Why Do Active Shooters Succeed?
October 6, 2017





location of vegas shooter and targets

You might associate armed attacks with wars or survival scenarios, but they can occur in normal times as well. The recent mass shooting at the Mandalay Bay in Las Vegas is a reminder that, in these toxic times, no one is safe from those with bad intentions.

It’s hard to read the news without seeing reports of the latest mass shooting by terrorists, the deranged, the disgruntled, and in the shooting in Las Vegas, people with no apparent motivation at all. Few believe that they could possibly wind up in the crosshairs of a gunman’s sight, but it can happen anytime and anywhere. Why do they seem to “succeed” so often and what would be your response to the “active shooter”?

Many of the concert-goers in Las Vegas were victims of what we call “normalcy bias”: That’s the tendency for people to believe everything follows a pattern and that the day will proceed normally because, well, it usually does. It’s a natural response for most, and is reinforced by the rarity of mass casualty incidents.

But when a shooter event breaks that pattern, the unprepared brain takes time to process the situation. People think that the sound of gunfire is, instead, a burst of firecrackers, a blown tire, or anything less threatening than an assassin out to kill them. This pause leads to a type of paralysis than was worsened in Las Vegas by the ready availability of alcohol. By the time good judgment came into play, many were already victims.

Given the circumstances, the rapid action of Las Vegas law enforcement is to be commended. Remarkable, in fact. Police were receiving multiple false reports that made it appear that there were multiple shooter events in a half-dozen casinos. There was even a car with wires sticking out of the trunk at New York New York casino’s valet that was thought to represent a bomb. Listening to police radio communications during the event, it’s amazing that such a coherent response was possible.

(Note: You might be interested to hear what was said on the radio. If so, you’ll find a partial transcript of the first hour or so of the event at the very bottom of this page)


The shooter was at Mandalay Bay, but reports of shooters also came in from several other casinos (all false)

Most citizens, indeed, believe that the good people of law enforcement and homeland security are always right there. While these agencies do the best they can to counter situations like this, most mass shooting events end so quickly (the Orlando nightclub shooting is an exception) that the chances are slim that help will be immediately at hand. It took just one 31 second period for the Las Vegas gunman to shoot 280 rounds, and possibly just 9-11 minutes (according to Las Vegas Police) before he ended his own life.

Without a plan of action, the average person follows the herd. If fifty people around you (or in Las Vegas, 22,000) drop to the floor, your natural tendency is to do the same. Cowering in fear in plain view of the shooter, however, is a recipe for a very bad outcome. By having a plan before a shooting event occurs, you’ll have a better chance of getting out of there in one piece.

These are things you should be thinking about, calmly and rationally, whenever you’re in a crowd. It may seem extreme to have to consider such options, but the headlines suggest otherwise. This relaxed vigilance is called “situational awareness“, a concept first put forth by a military pilot to pertain to dogfights but which has special importance today for the average citizen.

The standard recommendation, in order, by the Department of Homeland Security is “Run, Hide, Fight“. In the case of the Mandalay Bay shooter, the distance between the shooter and his targets effectively precluded the ability to fight, so running away from the kill zone and/or hiding in buildings and vehicles saved lives. Situationally-aware concert-goers were saved by a high index of suspicion and, hopefully, a low blood alcohol level when the bullets started flying.

If you’re inside, know where the exits are. If you’re outside, know the nearest route away from the area or reasonable nearby shelters. Know who near you appears nervous or suspicious. If you’re in a crowd, stay in the periphery, not center stage. Assume that the sounds of gunshots are gunshots, not firecrackers. Know the direction the gunshots are coming from and head the other way. Primed for a possible emergency, you’ll decrease the chance of becoming a victim.

Sounds simple, doesn’t it? But in this era of people immersed in their smartphones, few are situationally aware. In the old days, this might result in a bump on the head from walking into a lamp post. Today, the results can be tragic.

Don’t be the soft target that assassins look for. Remain situationally aware at all times, and decide how important it is for you to be in the midst of large crowds. Perhaps it was once paranoia, but in these uncertain times, it’s more like common sense.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/why-do-active-shooters-succeed/
 

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Survival Medicine Hour: Off-Grid Pregnancy Care, Cloves, Bleeding Kits
October 7, 2017




off-grid pregnancy care

What if you had to care for a pregnancy off the grid? Would you identify it as early as you should without pregnancy tests and ultrasounds? How can you assure the well-being of mother and baby during the pregnancy. Joe Alton MD and nurse-midwife Amy Alton, ARNP discuss how to keep an eye on that pregnant lady in your group from beginning all the way to 9 months (labor and delivery coming next time).


Amy’s multi-person bleeding kit

Also, what would be the items you’d want in a kit for a public venue where a gunman could cause multiple casualties? Nurse Amy discusses what’s in her multi-person kit specifically meant for bleeding wounds at schools, churches, workplaces, etc., and how it could be a lifesaver in active shooting incidents and other disaster settings.



Plus, natural remedies are important in good or bad times, but especially when modern medicines aren’t being produced, such as in survival scenarios. Joe Alton MD discusses the health benefits of cloves and why you should have some in your survival medicine cabinet.

All this and more in the latest episode of the Survival Medicine Hour with Joe and Amy Alton!

To Listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/10/06/survival-medicine-hour-pregnancy-management-cloves-bleeding-kits

all the best,

Joe and Amy Alton

https://www.doomandbloom.net/survival-medicine-hour-off-grid-pregnancy-care-cloves-bleeding-kits/
 

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The Effective Survival Medic
October 8, 2017



THE EFFECTIVE SURVIVAL MEDIC




Nurse Amy

(This article first appeared in American Survival Guide, a great magazine for backcountry, short-term, or long-term survival. Each issue is so packed with great information, I can’t bear to let go of them!)

After water, food, and shelter, many consider personal defense to be the most important priority in a long-term disaster. They’ve got the beans and bullets, but what many of these rugged survivalists don’t realize, however, is this: You can have all the beans and bullets there are, but it won’t mean a hill of beans, and you’ll just shoot yourself in the foot, unless you have the bandages.

Few in your group will be accustomed to performing activities of daily survival like, say, chopping wood for fuel. This fact will lead to injuries, burns, infections, and other medical issues that must be treated. Someone, therefore, has to assume the role of survival medic. This person might have to be you, an average citizen with little formal medical training. In a circumstance where the ambulance is no longer just around the corner, you may be the only medical asset left to your family or group.

When you become the end of the line, medically, for your people, how can you be certain that you’ll be an effective caregiver? This is a question that I’m often asked as I travel the country speaking on disaster medical preparedness. The success of the survival medic depends on the accumulation of three things: knowledge, training, and supplies. These can be obtained, over time, with effort and dedication.

One thing that isn’t easy for an inexperienced medic to obtain is the ability to avoid feeling squeamish at the sight of blood. A response similar to the “fight or flight” mechanism, it’s a natural fear reaction that causes blood vessels to dilate, blood pressure to drop, and slowing of the heartbeat, all leading to lightheadedness and nausea.

Of course, repeated exposure to blood is one way to become accustomed to it. One medical center director says that his students learn to compartmentalize fear reactions by repeating words or numbers in their head, rocking side to side, tensing and relaxing leg muscles, or even drinking a sugary caffeinated beverage to raise blood pressure, stay hydrated, and avoid low glucose levels (called “hypoglycemia”) that make them feel faint.

(As an aside, coffee is commonly thought to be dehydrating, but it doesn’t cause you to lose more fluids than you ingest in the drink.)

The designated medic must assume a number of roles besides that of chief medical officer. These include sanitation supervisor, dental technician, medical quartermaster, counselor, and archivist.

As sanitation supervisor, it is your duty to ensure that water is purified, food is prepared properly, and human waste is disposed of appropriately. Failure to, for example, construct an effective latrine could cause infectious disease to run rampant among your people.

If you are worried about a week without power due to a storm, you won’t have to deal with a lot of dental issues. In long-term survival, however, people start having dental issues like broken teeth, abscesses, and toothache that threaten their work efficiency, if not their life. Dental supplies become as important as medical supplies in this scenario.

Let’s say you’ve prepared and have a lot of medical supplies. Who determines when these precious items, many of which will be scarce after a disaster, are dispensed? Who gets the last course of antibiotics? That decision must be clearly defined as yours to make.

In the aftermath of a life-changing catastrophe, anxiety and depression will be more likely to be daily issues than gunfights at the OK corral (I hope). You must be a calm, understanding, confidential presence to keep your people focused on staying alive and productive.

Finally, you must be the archivist for the group. It’s your job to know the history of those for whom you are medically responsible: their illnesses, medications taken, past hospitalizations, allergies, and more. If you anticipate the likely problems you will confront as medic, you can stockpile supplies accordingly.

Speaking of supplies, you will need more than you have currently. How can I know this, not having seen your kit? Because you will responsible for more people that you think. You may be preparing to care for the number of people in your mutual assistance group, but be certain that they will bring relatives or that you will find additional survivors that have skills that would increase your chances for survival. These folks may be useful but will cause additional strain on your medical resources.

Lack of enough supplies for the number of people in your group is the biggest mistake made by the survival medic. You can never have enough; any extras would be valuable barter items. Be wary of kits that claim to be sufficient for 25 or 50 people, as they are often advertised: Just one major hemorrhage can take up the entirety of the bandages in these products. If you doubt this, empty a liter or two of fluid onto the floor and see how many bandages are needed to absorb it.

Although I suggest that medical supplies may be useful for barter purposes, I believe it is best to conserve them while freely offering to help all who are in need of medical help. Once it is known that you have skills, supplies, and a willingness to help, you’ll become so valuable to others in your community that they will expend resources to protect you.

Another mistake made by the medic is preparing for traumatic injuries while ignoring the lesser issues that can affect work efficiency. Toothaches, foot fungus, and hemorrhoids are just some of the problems that can plague group members and make them less productive.

Still another is the failure of the medic to know what plants and other natural substances in their area might have medicinal benefits. Aloe plants can be helpful for burn care. The green underbark of willow trees and others contain Salicin, the original ingredient in the first aspirins. Eventually, commercial products will be expended; it’s important to learn what’s in your own backyard that can help you keep your people healthy. Use all the tools in the medical woodshed.

It’s important to realize that, as the survival medic, you may not have the luxury of stabilization and evacuation to modern medical facilities. That means that you are responsible for wound care and infectious illness from beginning to end, something even experienced paramedics may not be ready to handle. You must enter the mindset that you are the highest medical resource left, and must deal with issues without the hope of transport for the foreseeable future. It’s important to set up a reasonable sick room or hospital tent to care for your patients.

What medical conditions will the medic be most likely to confront in long-term survival? Here are some you can expect:

Trauma
  • Minor Musculoskeletal injuries (sprains and strains)
  • Minor trauma (lacerations, abrasions, etc.)
  • Major traumatic injury (fractures, occasional knife and/or gunshot wounds)
  • Burn injuries
Infections
  • Respiratory infections (pneumonia, bronchitis, influenza, common colds)
  • Diarrheal disease (sometimes a community-wide outbreak)
  • Infected wounds
  • Minor infections (for example, urinary infections, “pinkeye”)
  • Lice, Ticks, Mosquitoes, and the diseases they carry
Allergic reactions
  • Minor (bees, bed bugs, or other insect bites and stings)
  • Major (anaphylactic shock)
Dental
  • Toothaches
  • Broken or knocked-out teeth
  • Lost fillings
  • Loose crowns or other dental work
Women’s issues
  • Pregnancy and delivery
  • Miscarriage
  • Birth control
Your environment will also factor into your effectiveness as a medic. At various times of the year, issues such as heat stroke or exhaustion, hypothermia, and dehydration may be encountered. If you don’t take into account the environment, you have made it your enemy, and it’s a formidable one.

All of the issues I mention here can quickly take up everything you have stored to help you function as the medic. Therefore, it just makes common sense to consider preventative measures to avoid headaches and, perhaps, heartaches. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, and that old saying is never more true than in survival.

It’s important to enforce the use of protective gloves, boots, and eyewear in any situation where injuries might occur. Clothes should be appropriate for the climate at your location. You might not consider these items to be medical supplies, but they can prevent a lot of problems that will take up your time and resources.

Personnel that carry firearms and knives must be trained in their safe use. Prevention extends not only to injuries, but also to infectious disease. When you suspect a group member of being ill, you must make sure that they are isolated from those that are healthy. These concepts may seem obvious to you, but you’ll be surprised (unpleasantly) at how many will forget to take precautions to avoid injuries and infection.

There is one last essential characteristic of the successful survival medic: a strong instinct for self-preservation. Although you might want to rush to the aid of the sick and injured, even in the face of hostile fire, you must realize that you are an indispensable asset to your group. If you frequently place yourself in harm’s way, you will eventually find yourself as the patient more often than you or anyone else would like. Always determine first if you can care for a victim without placing yourself at undue risk. You must abolish all threats; if someone has a gunshot wound, it stands to reason that there’s a guy with a gun out there. Don’t become the next casualty.

The Survival Library

For more resources on becoming an effective caregiver, consider these books for your survival library:



The Survival Medicine Handbook: The Essential Guide for When Medical Help is Not on the Way: Now in its 700 page third edition, our book covers 150 different medical issues that you might face after a disaster eliminates the option of modern medical care. Includes lists of recommended medical supplies and a guide to veterinary antibiotics in post-disaster settings.

(As an aside, The Survival Medicine Handbook’s Third Edition won the medical category of the 2017 Book Excellence Awards)

The Physician’s Desk Reference (Amazon Link): No longer available in print form, this guide to drugs, their uses, dosages, and side effects is still around on Ebay and elsewhere. Includes pictures of individual drugs to help identify unknown meds. Find an edition that’s a year or two old for your survival library.

Where There Is No Doctor and Where There Is No Dentist (Amazon Links): Guides for medical and dental care in underdeveloped countries.

Gray’s Anatomy (Amazon Link): The classic textbook of human anatomy

The Merck Manual (Amazon Link): Classic handbook for diagnosis and treatment

Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine: Standard medical textbook

This is, by no means, a complete list of every book that might be useful in survival situations, but it’s a good start.

DISCLAIMER: Be aware that, where there is an existing modern medical system, the practice of medicine or dentistry without a license is illegal and punishable by law. If modern medical professionals and facilities exist, seek them out.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/the-effective-survival-medic/
 

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8 Health Benefits of Cloves
October 11, 2017



Health Benefits of Clove


Dried Clove Buds

Our readers often ask us to comment on various natural remedies. Face it, medics can stockpile all the drugs they can, but if a disaster event lasts long enough, medicine and supplies will be expended. Unless society restabilizes pretty darn quickly, commercial medical items and drugs will be hard to find unless your retreat is the local hospital.

That leaves you with whatever’s in your back yard that might have medicinal benefits. Therefore, you’d be smart to start planting an herb garden in normal times. Once you get over the learning curve, you’ll figure out what plants do well in your grow zone. These plants will comprise your survival medicine cabinet. Once you get through a good season, you can experiment a little with teas, tinctures, or other ways that plants are processed into medicines. Your ancestors did just that, and had this plant or that plant in the garden not because it was food necessarily, but to treat illnesses and injuries.

Many medicinal plants are herbs that are mostly used in cooking, but also have uses for the medic. Today, let’s talk about cloves.


Clove Tree

Cloves, (syzygium aromaticum) are one of the spices native to Asia. You can find them in places like the Maluku islands in Indonesia, where it might have originated, but also in India, Pakistan, and even areas of East Africa. They are a popular spice used in a variety of ways in Asian cuisine. In fact, cloves form the basis of a lot of the food in a number of different nations.

Cloves have an interesting history. During the 13th and 14th centuries, they were transported all the way from Indonesia to pretty much all over the known world. I would think Marco Polo shipped some cloves to Italy and other European nations. During this time, cloves were very expensive, so much so that they were the subject of wars for monopoly over their production, distribution, and the islands where they came from. Dutch traders emerged victorious and held the Maluku islands for some time.

When we talk about natural plants, we usually talk about using leaves, roots or flowers, but with cloves, it’s the flower buds that are used as a spice and for most of its medicinal purposes. These look like miniature nails from your tool box. They are processed in a number of ways; for example, we use the essential oil in some of our kits.


Clove bud

Cloves are antioxidant powerhouses. Minerals in cloves include calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, and zinc. The vitamins found in them include vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin D, and vitamin K. They are also a source of Omega-3 fatty acids (the good kind).

Cloves are reported to have many health benefits, some of which include providing aid in digestion, having antimicrobial properties, fighting against cancer, protecting the liver, boosting the immune system, controlling diabetes, preserving bone quality, as well as fighting against oral diseases and headaches, while also, at least the Chinese say, displaying aphrodisiac properties. Which takes me to, how do I know if cloves are effective against this problem or that problem? I’ll admit that hard scientific data is hard to come by, so you have to understand that the reports aren’t always proof, and effects may be very individual, some may receive these health benefits in full, others, not so much.

What makes Clove buds a useful part of your off-grid medicine cabinet? The health benefits include beneficial effects on pain and inflammation, but also a negative effect on bacterial, viruses, fungi, and more. Like many herbs, Clove have a number of different compounds that may have medical uses, but the most well-known is called “Eugenol”.

Here are eight benefits that cloves may impart to your off-grid patients:


  1. Pain relief: We supply clove oil in all our dental kits because of its anesthetic and antiseptic effect in damaged teeth. Mixing 2 drops of clove oil with some zinc oxide powder can produce improvised temporary cement, useful for lost fillings and other oral issues. It may also relieve gum discomfort, but beware of using too much or too often; it can cause irritation.
  2. Breath issues: It may be hard to distill oil, but teas are easy to make right from the garden (and after drying in many cases). Gargling some tea made with cloves is thought to be a great way to eliminate bad breath.
  3. Respiratory ailments: Clove in its various forms is reported to be helpful for respiratory system complaints due to antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and expectorant effects. It’s been used for colds, sore throat, bronchitis, sinusitis, and more. Warm tea is a good way to access these benefits but better, perhaps, is adding clove oil to hot water and inhale steam.
  4. GI problems: Nausea and vomiting might be improved with direct inhalation of clove oil in a cloth. Mix some powdered clove buds with honey to decrease gas. It’s possible that cloves improve the production of digestive enzymes and help relax irritated intestinal lining, which might help stomach ache, diarrhea, and other GI discomforts.
  5. Ear infections: Clove has anesthetic and antimicrobial oral properties, but these also pertain to the ear canal. A combination of clove oil and sesame oil soaked in a cotton ball (best if warm) can relieve earache and treat infection. Alternatively, make an infusion with crushed cloves and olive oil, let sit for an hour, strain well, and put a few warm drops in the affected ear.
  6. Skin blemishes: Acne may be improved with Cloves due to its antibacterial effect. Mix clove oil with coconut oil (ratio 1:10) and apply to affected skin with a Q-tip two or three times daily until improved.
  7. Headaches: Due to it pain-relieving properties, massaging Clove oil mixed with coconut oil into the forehead or other area can relieve headache discomfort. Alternatively, place a few drops of clove oil on a warm cloth and apply to where the pain is.
  8. Joint Pain: Massaging aching joints with the above mixtures may work the same way on joint pain. Alternatively, a warm clove compress to the joints may be helpful.
It should be noted that clove oil is pretty strong stuff, and must be used sparingly. It can cause irritation, as mentioned above, but also has ill effects on the body’s cells when used excessively. It may also slow blood clotting, and, hence, not used prior to surgery. Having said that, used correctly in small amounts by diluting with carrier oils or liquids, clove oil is generally considered to be safe. You can expect whole dried clove buds to last 3-4 years if stored properly.

With clove oil and other natural plant oils, teas, tinctures, infusions, and balms, the quality of the product and medicinal benefits may vary due to a number of reasons. Soil conditions, seasonal temperatures, rainfall, and time of harvest are just some of the factors involved in determining the end product when it comes to herbal products. Many of these remedies also vary from individual to individual.

The off-grid or homestead medic should have a stockpile of commercial medicines, but also a sustainable supply of plants with medicinal properties for use in good times or bad. Use all the tools in the woodshed and you’ll be a more effective caregiver in austere settings.

Joe Alton

https://www.doomandbloom.net/8-health-benefits-of-cloves/
 

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Survival Medicine Hour: Labor and Delivery, Wildfire, More
October 14, 2017




off grid labor and delivery

In any long-term survival situation involving a group or community, eventually the issue of pregnancy and childbirth arises. The medic for the group should know basics about pregnancy and childbirth. Childbirth is a natural process that usually doesn’t require a doctor or even a midwife to manage, as long as some simple steps are followed. Joe and Amy Alton, aka Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy, take you through a typical labor and delivery process.


Calilfornia wildfires

Also, wildfires are raging through Northern California, with 40 killed and hundreds unaccounted for. What should you do to prepare for wildfires from both a personal and a property perspective? Dr. Alton gives you some common sense recommendations that could save life, limb, and location in a conflagration.

All this and more on the latest Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP!

To Listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/10/13/survival-medicine-hour-labor-and-delivery-wildfires-more

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

https://www.doomandbloom.net/survival-medicine-hour-labor-and-delivery-wildfire-more/
 

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Survival Medicine Hour: Mudslides, OTC Drugs, More
October 23, 2017



SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR PODCAST #360


Your medic kit should contain various OTC meds

Your survival medicine cabinet should have plenty of different meds that can handle pain, inflammation, fever, respiratory infections, stomach upset, diarrhea, and many more of the common issues that the survival medic will confront off the grid. Here’s a good list and explanation of why you should have these medicines in your storage.


mudslide

Plus, Living in a cliffhanging home on Ski Mountain in Gatlinburg, TN, gateway to the Smokies, puts ol’ Dr. Bones and the lovely Nurse Amy at risk for a mudslide, especially since the 2016 wildfire, destroyed so many trees that were preventing erosion in the area. What are warning signs of future mudslides and what can you do to prevent becoming a victim?

All this and more in the Latest Survival Medicine Hour with Joe Alton MD and Amy Alton ARNP!

To listen in, click below:

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/survivalmedicine/2017/10/20/survival-medicine-hour-mudslides-otc-drugs-more

Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,

Joe and Amy Alton

https://www.doomandbloom.net/survival-medicine-hour-mudlslides-otc-drugs-more/
 

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The Nurse Combats Disease 1962 US PHS Communicable Disease Center (CDC)
Jeff Quitney


Published on Oct 28, 2017
Biology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology... playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

more at http://quickfound.net

"This program reviews with the aid of drawings the nurse's role in the prevention of disease. Emphasis is placed on factors which influence the transmission of disease. Techniques which can be used for preventing the transmission of disease are reviewed. Factors which affect the natural history of disease are also discussed. These factors include the characteristics of the organisms which cause disease and host resistance. Environmental factors such as climate which have an effect on disease and the organism's ability to resist it are identified. Factors which can improve host resistance are also reviewed. The nurse's role in maintaining a safe environment and educating the public in order to prevent disease is detailed."

Originally a public domain film from the US National Library of Medicine, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nursing
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b...

Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in many specialties with differing levels of prescription authority. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians, and this traditional role has shaped the public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurses are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings depending on training level. In the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing.

Nurses develop a plan of care, working collaboratively with physicians, therapists, the patient, the patient's family and other team members, that focuses on treating illness to improve quality of life. In the United States and the United Kingdom, advanced practice nurses, such as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, diagnose health problems and prescribe medications and other therapies, depending on individual state regulations. Nurses may help coordinate the patient care performed by other members of a multidisciplinary health care team such as therapists, medical practitioners and dietitians. Nurses provide care both interdependently, for example, with physicians, and independently as nursing professionals...

Florence Nightingale laid the foundations of professional nursing after the Crimean War. Her Notes on Nursing (1859) became popular. The Nightingale model of professional education, having set up the first school of nursing that is connected to a continuously operating hospital and medical school, spread widely in Europe and North America after 1870. Nightingale was also a pioneer of the graphical presentation of statistical data...
 

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PLAGUE!
October 28, 2017



PLAGUE!


“Buboes” in Bubonic Plague

When you read about the Plague, it’s usually in history books. You probably know that this deadly disease, known as the “Black Death” in the middle ages, killed millions; you might not know, however, that Plague epidemics still occur today.

An outbreak of Plague in Madagascar began in August 2017 and has expanded rapidly, with about two-thirds of cases transmitted person-to-person as Pneumonic Plague, the most dangerous form of the disease.

Although Plague is not uncommonly seen in rural parts of the country, the death toll of 124 as of October 23rd is the highest in many years. It’s thought that there are a few hundred cases every year in the island nation, but there have been 1200 reported just since August. More than half of cases have been recorded in the capital of Antananarivo and the main port of Toamasina, the largest cities in the country.

Interestingly, Plague had been under control in Madagascar due to measures enacted in the 1950s. These measures included improved hygiene, better public housing, pesticides, vaccination campaigns, and of course, antibiotics. Efforts have since broken down and cases have been on the rise.


Famadihana Ritual

Some strange local customs may be involved, including a unique tradition called “famadihana” sometimes called “dancing with the dead,” or “the turning of the bones”. The bodies of dead ancestors are dug up and wrapped in fresh cloth. Then the family dances with the corpses before re-burying the remains. The tradition is practiced in Madagascar’s central region, an area currently in the epidemic zone.

As you might imagine, handling bodies of pneumonic Plague victims from the grave is risky business. The bacteria seems to persist when buried, and can still be passed to others for an extended period.

WHAT IS PLAGUE?


Yersinia Pestis

We may have all heard of it, but what, really is the Plague?

Plague is a highly infectious disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia Pestis. This bacterium is found in fleas that infest rats and other rodents. The infection is transmitted from animal to animal (or human) when infected fleas jump on and bite a new host. Once established, different forms of plague can be spread by air droplets from coughs, in the blood, or even by contaminated water or food.

Although you learned about the “Black Death” in the 14th century AD, there have been various Plague epidemics over the ages. The Justinian Plague in 541 AD killed 25 million people in a few years. In modern times, a Plague outbreak in 1894 in Hong Kong killed 10 million over the 20 years. It was during this epidemic that the Yersinia Pestis was first identified as the culprit from the fleas in rats.

In the last century, Plague outbreaks have been reported in India, Vietnam, and sub-Saharan Africa. Occasional cases are even reported in the Western part of the United States.

TYPES OF PLAGUE

The symptoms of plague depend on the type:

Bubonic plague: Bubonic plague, the most common type, causes fever, chills, and other flu-like symptoms before it infects lymph nodes. An accumulation of bacteria, blood, and pus in these structures gives rise to painful, swollen lumps called “buboes”. Buboes are blackish in color and may be seen in the armpits, groin, and neck.

Other symptoms include vomiting of blood, gastrointestinal issues, breathing difficulty, seizures, and gangrene (loss of circulation) to the extremities such as toes, fingers, nose, and lips. Untreated, delirium and coma eventually occur, and death ensues in a week to ten days.


Pneumonic plague: Pneumonic plague infects the lungs and can develop in those with bubonic plague or who breathe in infected air droplets. The patient begins to cough up blood (also known as “hemoptysis”) and develops chest pain and shortness of breath. If untreated, death occurs in less than 48 hours.

Septicemic plague: Bacteria may pass from buboes into the bloodstream, or may directly enter the body through an open wound. Besides fever and other general symptoms, a depletion in blood clotting factors may cause spontaneous and unstoppable bleeding into the skin, lungs, kidneys, and other organs.

TREATMENT

Untreated plague can be rapidly fatal, so early diagnosis and treatment is essential for survival and reduction of complications. Bubonic plague isn’t hard to diagnose from the presence of buboes. Pneumonic Plague is different, however. Patient Zero in the Madagascar epidemic was a 31 year old man on a crowded minibus who was originally thought to have malaria. In long-term survival, a high index of suspicion is important.

The fact that Plague is caused by bacteria makes it susceptible to the early use of certain medicines. Antibiotics combined with supportive therapy like hydration are effective against plague if patients are diagnosed in time. Doxycycline, Tetracycline, or Ciprofloxacin may be good choices for a seven-day course of therapy.

PREVENTION


Ensure safe burial practices

The caregiver in austere settings can institute policies to decrease the chance of Plague and many other infectious diseases. Preventive measures include:
  • Advising group members to take precautions against flea bites. Control fleas by applying an appropriate insecticide in dust or spray form.
  • Taking care when handling animal carcasses.
  • Avoiding unprotected contact with infected tissues (such as buboes), as well as coughs and sneezes of patients with pneumonic plague. Use gloves, masks, and aprons in the sick room.
  • Isolating sick patients from common areas, such as places where food is prepared, so as not to infect others via air droplets.
  • Ensuring safe burial practices and appropriate disposal of human waste.
  • Eliminating rodents from areas where humans may frequently contact them.
Vaccines have not been found to be very effective in preventing Plague outbreaks.

MADAGASCAR

The government in Antananarivo has ruled against digging up bodies of plague victims. However, just like in West Africa during the Ebola epidemic, it’s hard to fight centuries-old traditions like the “Turning of the Bones”. Combine that with the difficulty of following contacts of infected individuals, and it’s likely that it will be a while before the epidemic subsides.

Hospitals in the cities are at capacity, but there is good news: 780 individuals have been cured of their infection since August.

Another bit of good news is that the global risk of a Plague pandemic is small. There isn’t a lot of air traffic to Madagascar from high-population Western cities. Most flights from the country go to neighboring islands.

So far, the World Health Organization (WHO) isn’t recommending any travel restriction to the island nation. In spite of that, I wouldn’t be planning a long vacation anytime soon to Madagascar.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/plague/
 

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Vehicular Terror: The Easiest Blueprint To Create Mayhem
November 1, 2017



Vehicular Terror: The Easiest Blueprint For Terror


vehicular terror

In these days of smartphone distractions, you’re seeing more and more people oblivious of their surroundings. In the past, this might get you a bump on the head by walking into a lamp post. In today’s world, however, it could cost you your life.

The NYC vehicular attack that killed 8 and injured a number of others is just the latest in a number of incidents by the deranged, disgruntled, and politically motivated. These events occur with little warning. Yet, being situationally aware could prevent you from becoming a victim of a future vehicular terror event.

Situational awareness involves understanding factors in your immediate vicinity that might represent a threat. I’m not talking about second-hand smoke; I’m talking about serious dangers that you can avoid with rapid action.

Vehicular terrorism is not new, with Israel the scene of multiple attacks in past years. It’s becoming more and more common in the West, however, with attacks in NYC, London, Nice, France, Berlin, and elsewhere. A Somali student used his car to run over several people at Ohio State University and then perpetrated a knife attack on those who, ironically, ran over to see if he was injured. Many similar events have occurred, but rarely make the news.

Why vehicular terror? Terror attacks are often associated with bombs, but making a bomb requires some expertise to assemble safely. Guns, the other preferred weapon, are difficult to come by in most countries other than the U.S. Owning or renting a vehicle, however, is easy. Trucks and cars can cause mass casualties if wielded as a weapon; obtaining one isn’t an act that evokes suspicion.

Early this year, an article titled “Just Terror Tactics” was published by the English-language ISIS magazine “Rumiyah”. It described which vehicles will cause the most damage and called for attacks on Western crowds. “It is a simple idea and there is not much involved in its preparation,” the article said. “All what is needed is the willingness to give one’s life for Allah.”

The article goes on: “Pick your location and timing carefully. Go for the most crowded locations. Narrower spots are also better because it gives less chance for the people to run away. Avoid locations where other vehicles may intercept you…”

“To achieve maximum carnage, you need to pick up as much speed as you can while still retaining good control of your vehicle in order to maximize your inertia and be able to strike as many people as possible in your first run.”

The writer also suggested attackers weld steel blades onto the front of an SUV: “They do not need to be extra sharp because with the speed of the truck at the time of impact, even a blunter edge would slice through bone very easily. You may raise the level of the blades as high as the headlights. That would make the blades strike your targets at the torso level or higher.”


These tactics represent the new blueprint among terrorists for causing mayhem. Few people pay much attention to traffic unless they’re driving a vehicle themselves or crossing the street. The speed at which a vehicle can accelerate and turn into a crowd leaves little reaction time. Therefore, the “success” rate of this type of terror event may surpass even a gunman’s ability to cause deaths and injuries.

I advocate for a constant state of “Yellow Alert” when in public spaces. By that, I mean a calm but vigilant observation of what’s happening around you. Look for anomalies in behavior that might warn you of nefarious intentions. For example, hopping up and down and screaming may be normal at a rock concert, but it’s an anomaly at Starbucks.

This attitude is useful, but it’s difficult to respond quickly enough to avoid an oncoming car or truck. When a vehicle moves erratically or leaves the normal pattern of traffic, it’s an anomaly that requires quick action. Mentally noting routes of escape whenever you’re in public will give you the best chance of escaping. Just as knowing the location of exits in a mall or theatre is good policy, a heightened awareness is now important at any public area near roadways.

For vehicular terrorists, the target will be crowds of people near the street. Their objective is mass casualties, and those pedestrians nearest the curb will bear the brunt of the attack. Consider walking on the fringe of a crowd away from the road to give yourself the most options. In the center, the masses, not your own good judgment, will dictate your movement.


Bollards may help protect again vehicular terror

Municipalities can protect their citizens from vehicular terrorism by constructing barriers known as “bollards” which stop vehicles from entering pedestrian areas. These can be seen outside many government buildings and airport terminals. Expanding their use to areas that attract crowds would be an important consideration for the future.

I’m not the only one thinking of how to deal with vehicular terror. The FBI and the Department of Homeland Security issued a release warning of vehicular terrorism and how to identify an imminent attack. The release acknowledges the time issues in reacting to such events, but includes the following things to look for:
  • Unusual modifications to vehicles, such as frontal reinforcement.
  • The purchase or rental of large or heavy-duty vehicles, especially if there is nervousness during the transaction, payment in cash, or lack of familiarity with the vehicle’s operations.
  • Commercial motor vehicles or heavy equipment being operated in unusual locations, such as particularly heavy pedestrian areas.
  • Attempts to approach areas closed to traffic, such as street festivals or farmers’ markets.
  • A vehicle operator’s apparent unfamiliarity with operating a commercial vehicle, such as trouble with gear shifting.
I’ll admit that the likelihood you’ll be in the path of a terrorist using a vehicle, or any other weapon, is very small. Panic isn’t the answer, but these are troubled times; the more situationally aware you are, the safer you’ll be.

Joe Alton MD

https://www.doomandbloom.net/vehicular-terror-the-easiest-blueprint-to-create-mayhem/
 

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Disease will kill more people than bullets in a S.H.T.F. event.
preppernurse1


Published on Oct 30, 2017
Sickness and Disease will kill more people than bullets in a post S.H.T.F. event.