29 Fantastic Color Photos Captured Tramways of Barcelona in the 1960s
Historically, the city of Barcelona, in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, had a large tramway network. The city's first tram line opened in 1872, but almost all of these historic lines had closed by 1971, being replaced by buses and by the expanding Barcelona Metro.
These fantastic photos documented the operation of tramways in Barcelona in 1963 and 1964.
I've been playing around with my new CNC router setup, it's pretty amazing what you can do with a nice 1/8" ballnose cutter. This is just an old fall-off piece from a 2x6 that I was able to "carve" up.
60 Vintage Photographs Document Daily Life of Hitler Youth Members During the 1930s
On the night of January 30, 1933, Nazis in Berlin celebrated the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany by conducting massive torchlight parades. Hitler Youth units were among those in the columns passing under the watchful gaze of Hitler and Paul von Hindenburg, the elderly president of Germany.
Within two months, Hitler acquired dictatorial powers resulting from the Enabling Act passed by the Nazi-controlled Reichstag. Hitler's acquisition of power meant the Hitler Youth and all other Nazi organizations now had the official power of the State on their side. The period of Nazi Gleichschaltung (forced coordination) immediately began in which all German institutions and organizations were either Nazified or disbanded. Hitler Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach now sought to eliminate all 400 of the other competing youth organizations, large and small, throughout Germany.
On April 3, 1933, Schirach sent fifty Hitler Youths storming into the Berlin offices of the Reichs Committee of German Youth Associations, an organization representing nearly six million German children involved a huge array of youth programs. Staff members inside the building were told to continue working and were simply informed they were now under the authority of the Hitler Youth. Thus the majority of Germany's youth organizations had instantly been placed under Schirach's control.
Many leaders among the conservative and nationalist youth groups willingly joined ranks with the Hitler Youth. Others, such as the Communist and Jewish youth organizations were quickly disbanded. Various Protestant groups were pressured by the Nazis to join and soon yielded. Offices of the Socialist Workers' Youth were also raided. Other groups were prevented from holding any gatherings by order of the police and Nazi storm troopers under the pretext of being a "public nuisance." Within months, most of the competing political and religious youth organizations in Germany vanished.
The only major holdout was the Catholic Youth Organization due in part to the international clout of the Church and an agreement (Concordat) that had been signed between the Vatican and Hitler's government protecting Catholic institutions in Germany. In Catholic sections of Germany, high ranking Nazis could still be found at Sunday mass along with groups of Hitler Youths in uniform and Hitler Youths serving at the altar wearing their uniforms beneath altar boy robes.
On June 17, 1933, Hitler promoted Schirach to Jugendführer des Deutschen Reiches (Youth Leader of Germany). Schirach was now answerable only to Hitler, with all youth activities in Germany placed under Schirach's sole command. In July, Schirach dissolved the old Reich's Committee of German Youth Associations since it no longer served any purpose.
Members of Hitler Youth giving the Nazi Party salute on their bicycles, near Berlin, Germany, 1932.
Members of Hitler Youth in march, Potsdam, Germany, 1932.
Members of Hitler Youth receiving rations at a camp near Potsdam, Germany, 1932.
Hitler Youth members playing tug of war while donning helmets and gas masks, 1933.
A Hitler Youth marching band resting near Lustgarten, Berlin, 1 May 1933.
Hitler Youth meeting at the stadium in Grunewald, Berlin, Germany, Jun 1933.
Hitler Youth gathering at Lustgarten, Berlin, Germany, 19 Aug 1933.
German children parading in a Berlin stadium, Germany, Sep 1933
Hitler Youth members on a trip to Tianjin, China, Oct 1933.
A group of Hitler Youth boys, date unknown.
Hitler Youth member being instructed on a glider, date unknown.
Hitler Youth members at a glider school, Germany, date unknown.
Hitler Youth members camping, 1930s.
Hitler Youth members collecting scrap metal, 1930s.
Hitler Youth members in the field, 1930s.
Hitler Youth members learning signal flags, Germany, 1930s.
Hitler Youth members playing musical instruments, 1930s.
Hitler Youth members rock climing, Germany, 1930s.
Hitler Youth members standing in formation, Worms, Germany, 1930s.
Young female members of the Nazi Party in march, Worms, Germany, 1933-1939.
Hitler Youth camp at the Tempelhof Field in Berlin, Germany, 10 Jun 1934.
Members of the Hitler Youth at Tempelhofer Feld, Berlin, Germany, 10 Jun 1934.
Hitler Youth members at a Nazi Party rally, Nürnberg, Germany, 5-10 Sep 1934.
Hitler Youth campground, 1930s.
Hitler Youth members in Shanghai, China, circa 1930s.
Hitler Youth members learning how to read a map, date unknown.
Hitler Youth members marching in Wuxi, Jiangsu, China, circa 1935.
Hitler Youth members preparing for a Winter Relief drive in Tianjin, China, 1934-1935.
Hitler Youth members with a flag, Worms, Germany, 1930s.
Hitler Youth trumpeter at a camp in Wuxi, Jiangsu, China, 1935.