Portraits of 10 Women Who Acted as Spies to Stop the Nazis
Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned. The Germans would have done well to take note of William Congreve’s writings during World War II. While the efforts of men in war have been well highlighted, we often forget that women played just as large a role in ensuring victory. Some piloted planes, others worked hard in factories, and a very special few joined the Allied secret service. The following 10 women risked their own lives to scout enemy positions, bomb railroads, and ensure that the Third Reich met its match.
1. Andree Borrel
Andree was contributing to the war effort even before becoming a spy. This French national and her friend were responsible for an underground railway into Spain, which they used to evacuate downed Allied airmen from occupied France. When the network was betrayed in 1940, she fled to Portugal and eventually joined SOE in 1942.
She was one of the first female agents to parachute into France along with Lise de Baissac on September 24, 1942. After joining the resistance in Paris, she became second in command of the local network by March 1943. Responsible for attacking a power station and other infrastructure, she and three key members were arrested. After proving too tough to crack through interrogation, she was taken to a concentration camp where she was given a lethal injection. Andree regained consciousness after the injection. Fighting the doctors for her life, she was eventually overpowered and cremated while alive.
2. Nancy Wake
Born on August 30, 1912, in Wellington, New Zealand, Nancy worked as a journalist in pre-war Nazi Germany. After marrying a French industrialist, she joined the French Resistance in occupied France and helped British airmen escape capture. In December 1940, after being betrayed, Wake was captured. After convincing her guards that she wasn’t the woman they were looking for, she traveled to Britain and joined the Special Operations Executive (SOE). This was where she learned that her husband had been shot by Gestapo agents—which turned out to be a bad move on their part when Nancy came back with a vengeance.
She was dropped back into France in 1944 to coordinate Resistance attacks with the planned D-Day landings. This time she led an armed raid against Gestapo headquarters and German gun factories. After getting separated from her radio operator during a German counter-attack, she walked 200 kilometers (124 miles) and biked a 100 more kilometers (62 miles) to contact another operator. One of her resistance members said, “She is the most feminine woman I know, until the fighting starts. Then she is like five men.” Nancy died in 2011, at the age of 98.
3. Violette Reine
A French national, Violette moved to London before the start of the war. It was here that she met, fell in love with, married, and had a child with Etienne Szabo, a French Foreign Legion Officer serving with Free French forces. After Szabo was killed in 1942, Violette joined SOE to avenge his death (a common theme that might suggest making enemies of women was the downfall of Nazi Germany).
Replacing Philippe Liewer, an agent who had been uncovered and was hiding in Paris, she helped to completely restructure and reorder the shattered resistance movement in Normandy in June 1943. She also led sabotage missions against roads and railways as well as spotted potential bombing targets for the British. After briefly returning to Britain, she went on a second mission into France in which her car was ambushed. After holding off German troops with 64 rounds of ammunition so that her colleague could escape, she was captured and deported to Saarbrucken along with two other female agents and 37 male prisoners. During the transit, she used the cover of an Allied air raid to gather water for the imprisoned men in her final valorous act before she was executed on January 27, 1945.
4. Cecile Pearl Witherington
Cecile, a Brit born in France, joined SOE on June 8, 1943, after fleeing France. When she dropped into France on September 22, 1943, she started as a courier. The Germans, not taking kindly to even the prettiest of girls smuggling illegal weapons and intel, made even this low-level job incredibly dangerous.
When her superior was arrested, Cecile took over his duties. As leader of the Wrestler resistance network, she fielded over 1,500 fighters who played key roles in the Normandy landings. They were so effective that the Germans placed a 1,000,000 franc bounty on her head. In one instance, a force of 2,000 German soldiers were sent to attack her and her men in a battle which lasted 14 hours. The battle saw the death of 86 Germans and 24 of her freedom fighters. In all, 1,000 German soldiers were killed under her command, and railways connecting South and North France were disrupted over 800 times. In the final days of the occupation, she presided over the surrender of 18,000 Germans.
5. Virginia Hall
Virginia may be the most impressive of the women on this list. While they all kicked Hitler’s butt, Hall did it with only one real foot—the other was a prosthesis, and a terrible prosthesis given the time. No stranger to danger, she served as an ambulance driver during the invasion of France, which we’re sure was an incredibly difficult task with the lack of automatic transmissions and even harder still with the clutch.
Before even becoming an agent, she organized the resistance, helped downed pilots, and carried out raids in 1941 under the guise of an American reporter. The Germans declared the “Limping Lady” one of the most dangerous Allied spies in 1942, and with her very unique limp, she was forced out of France. The American equivalent of SOE recruited Virginia in 1944 and sent her into France via parachute in 1944, with her prosthesis in her backpack. From her landing onward, she disguised herself as a farmhand and trained French resistance troops, organized sabotages, and helped with the resistance role in D-Day.
6. Odette Hallowes
“Who you know is everything” or “Who you claim to know is everything” should be the lesson that you take away from the adventures of Odette Hallowes. After accidentally enrolling into the SOE by sending a postcard offering to help with the war effort to the wrong government office, Odette was dropped into France in 1942.
Meeting up with her supervisor Peter Churchill (no relation to Winston), Odette acted as an assistant and courier. After their operation was infiltrated, the two were arrested and tortured in Paris. What they did then most likely spared them their lives. They claimed that Peter was the nephew of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and that Odette was his wife. The two were still sent to a concentration camp in June 1943, but no death date was officially listed. In fact, the camp commandant, Fritz Suhren, even brought Odette with him when he surrendered. He had hoped that her connections would spare him from being labeled a war criminal. Odette later testified against him, and he was hanged in 1950.
7. Diana Rowden
At the outbreak of the war, Diana Rowden, a French journalist, joined the French Red Cross. After fleeing France in the summer of 1941, she joined the SOE in March 1943. Flown to a location northeast of Angers, she joined the “Acrobat” resistance network in June 1943.
Diana played a major role in delivering messages to other agents of the underground in Marseille, Lyon, and Paris under the noses of the Germans. She was also pivotal in the planning and execution of an attack on the Peugeot factory at Sochaux, which disrupted tank and plane manufacturing in the area. In November 1943, her network was betrayed, and Rowden was arrested. She was sent alongside fellow agents Leigh, Borrel, and Olschanezky to her death at the Natzwiler-Struthof concentration camp.
8. Vera Leigh
Leigh joined the French resistance after the fall of Paris, helping Allied servicemen trapped behind enemy lines. Thinking that she could be of more use, Vera fled to England in 1942 and was directly recruited by the SOE despite being 40 at the time (considered a little old for an agent).
Known as a crack shot by her colleagues, she arrived near Tours in May 1943. Tasked with forming an entirely new network of resistance, Leigh, by chance, met her sister’s husband who ran a safe house for Allied airmen. She took further risk to herself by also becoming involved in this operation. On the October 30, Leigh was arrested before she could fully finish her work creating the “Inventor” resistance group. Leigh was deported alongside other agents to Natzwiler-Struthof concentration camp where she was killed.
9. Krystyna Skarbek
Kyrstyna was a Polish spy who inspired the character played by Eva Green in Casino Royale, and she has our thanks for that rather drop-dead gorgeous inspiration. She also has our thanks for the pivotal role she played in occupied Poland and France. After joining the Secret Intelligence Service in 1939, she convinced a Polish Olympic skier, Jan Marusarz, to escort her from Hungary across the Tatra Mountains, which had temperatures of -30 degrees Celsius (-20 F) at the time, and into Poland. While in Poland, she made first contact with many agents and resistance groups which would prove invaluable to the British.
Furthermore, she smuggled Polish airmen to neutral Yugoslavia so that they could help the war effort. When she was captured in 1941, she pretended to cough up blood by biting her tongue, telling them that she has tuberculosis. Scars on her lungs from her job at an auto shop (emissions were pretty awful back then) confirmed the lie when German doctors took X-rays. After buying her story, they let her go and Skarbek fled to England. She was later sent to Southern France by SOE in 1944. During her time there, she successfully scaled a 610-meter (2,000 ft) cliff to reach the Col de Larche fort, convincing the garrison of 200 fellow Poles to surrender. She was stabbed to death on June 15, 1952, before she saw her country freed.
10. Lise de Baissac
After fleeing Paris in 1940, Lise de Baissac found herself in London and applied to join SOE as soon as they accepted females. Along with Andree on September 24, 1942, she was one of the first female agents to parachute into France.
Lise, posing as a poor widow, was tasked with setting up a network in the city, as well as transporting arms from the UK to French resistance members. She, of course, chose to be subtle, moving into an apartment near the Gestapo HQ and becoming acquainted with the chief, Herr Grabowski. She also used the guise of an amateur archaeologist to gather geographical information for landings. On her second mission, she returned to France on April 10, 1944 to work for another network. After D-Day, she played a role gathering information on troop movement, renting a room in a house occupied by the local commander of German forces. Lise died at age 98 in 2004.
(This original article was written by Mark Pygas and published on Listverse)
Gone With The Wind: 8 Famous Hollywood Actresses Who Wanted to Be Scarlett O'Hara and Failed
Margaret Mitchell's best-selling civil war novel Gone With The Wind hit the bookstores in 1936. Hollywood producer David O. Selznick bought the movie rights for $50,000, and immediately began to put together a believable cast for the Gone With The Wind movie.
The movie's cast had to be believable. After all, it was a period piece and the actors had to convince the audience they were from the Civil War-era South.
Handsome leading man Clark Gable had the role of Rhett Butler from the start. Ever since his Academy Award Oscar for Best Actor in 1934's It Happened One Night, almost any Clark Gable movie was guaranteed to be a big success.
Actress Olivia de Havilland was signed for the important role of Melanie, but the search for the perfect Scarlett O'Hara, the book's central character, would last for over two years. The Gone With The Wind book was one of the most successful novels ever published, and while Selznick had decided to take some liberties with telling the story on the big screen, he knew for the movie to be a success, he must choose the right actress.
Instinctively, he knew the success or failure of the picture would depend upon a believable Scarlett O'Hara.
Before the search finally came to an end, over 100 actresses would audition or be considered for the coveted role. Here are some of the better-known names.
1. Bette Davis: America's Choice to Play Scarlett O'Hara
One of the favorites was actress Bette Davis who'd recently filmed 1938's Jezebel in which she played a precocious Southern belle. Davis won her second Academy Award for the movie and was now one of the most popular actresses in America. In the 1930s, Bette Davis movies were almost sure-bet winners with audiences.
Davis made no effort to hide the fact she desperately wanted the part. And adding to the pressure to hire her for the role was a nationwide radio poll that declared her the audience's favorite to play Scarlett.
Still, Selznick wasn't convinced she could pull it off, and turned down a deal with Warner Bros. that would "lend" Davis and actor Errol Flynn to Selznick and MGM, with Flynn playing Rhett Butler.
The setback didn't hurt Davis's career; she would go on to enjoy a lifetime of cinematic acclaim, and receive eight more Academy Award nominations (10 total) in the next five decades.
2. Jean Harlow: Never Got the Chance
Harlean Carpenter, better known as the 1930s super sex symbol Jean Harlow was an early consideration for the role of Scarlett.
The actress who claimed she never wore underwear, and always slept in the nude, had already starred with Clark Gable in six movies, including Red Dust and Saratoga, and their on-screen chemistry led to a passionate off-screen romance.
Harlow was, in the 1930s, what Marilyn Monroe was in the 1950s: a bonafide sex symbol, and almost all Jean Harlow movies made M-G-M money.
Sadly, any chance she may have had at appearing in the Gone With The Wind movie was lost when she died in 1937 from acute nephritis.
3. Lucille Ball: She Who Laughs Last, Laughs Best
Before she became America's favorite TV comedienne, young actress Lucille Ball enjoyed a reasonably successful career on the big screen. Like practically every other actress in Hollywood, she had read the Gone With The Wind book and imagined herself as the book's heroine, Scarlett O'Hara.
In her late 20s, Ball had begun her career in the early 1930s with a handful of bit parts and uncredited roles. But by the middle of the decade she began landing better roles and began to move up the career-success ladder, albeit in mostly "B" movies.
None-the-less, after learning of Selznick's search for his perfect Scarlett O'Hara, Ball went to Selznick's office and waited for him. Having been drenched in the rain outside, she was kneeling in front of his office fireplace trying to dry her hair.
Selznick had her read her lines while she was still kneeling and then quickly dismissed her. Lucy never forgot the slight, and several decades later after achieving fame and fortune with her "I Love Lucy" TV series, she bought Selznick Productions and moved into his office.
She and her "I Love Lucy" cast members would all go on to become television icons and beloved the world over.
4. Katharine Hepburn: Was She Sexy Enough for the Scarlett Role?
In the Gone With The Wind book, Scarlett O'Hara had a strong and steely determination when it came down to facing life's many challenges. Selznick needed an actress who could portray that on the big screen. And Kate Hepburn was just the answer.
"I am Scarlett O'Hara," declared Katharine Hepburn when she approached David O. Selznick to audition for the role of Scarlett. Hepburn, now in her mid-30s, had already been nominated for two Best Actress Academy Awards, winning in 1934 for Morning Glory.
As the story goes, Selznick was none-the-less unimpressed and is reported to have responded to her audition by saying, "I can't image Rhett Butler chasing you for twelve years." Ouch!
Unfazed by the rejection, Hepburn filmed The Philadelphia Story with Jimmy Stewart, and it was one of 1940s biggest box office hits. The movie garnered the actress her third Oscar nomination, and in the following decades she will be nominated nine more times for a Best Actress Academy Award, and win three times, giving her a total of five Best Actress Oscars in twelve attempts.
Today, Hepburn is regarded as one of the most accomplished actresses in cinematic history, and many Katharine Hepburn movies show up regularly on late-night TV.
5. Joan Crawford: A Night With Selznick Didn't Convince Him
Gone With The Wind movie producer David O. Selznick had recently worked with Clark Gable and Joan Crawford on the film, Dancing Lady, and noticed the chemistry between them. It was a chemistry that led to a long-time love affair between the two actors, and it's been reported that when Gable's then-wife actress Carole Lombard died in a 1942 airplane crash in Nevada, Gable was in bed with Crawford when the phone rang to give him the bad news.
Crawford was lobbying studio execs over at MGM to give her the role, and even went so far as to have Selznick stay the night in her Hollywood mansion so she could charm him into signing her.
But her plan didn't work, and despite her close relationship with Clark Gable, Selznick wasn't convinced she was right for the role and she was soon added to the list of Scarlett O'Hara wannabes.
In 1978, a year after the movie icon's death, her adopted daughter, Christina Crawford, authored the book "Mommy Dearest," in which she detailed incidents not only of child abuse, but also allegations of sexual misbehavior and bi-sexualism.
The public has largely shrugged off these claims, and today Joan Crawford movies are still popular, and often replayed on classic movie channels.
6. Lana Turner: Could the Sweater Girl Play a Southern Belle?
In November 1938, a young blonde beauty named Lana Turner showed up to audition for GWTW producer David O. Selznick.
Turner was an up-and-coming Warner Bros. sex symbol. The "Sweater Girl" had caught the public's attention in Warner's 1937 film, They Won't Forget where she'd played a Southern beauty. Selznick had her audition in a scene where actor Melvyn Douglas played the part of Ashley Wilkes. However, Selznick was not impressed, saying her audition was "completely inadequate," and that the fledgling star was simply "too young to have a grasp of the part.
A few years after her rejection, Turner appeared in the 1941 horror-film classic, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, and five years later would star in The Postman Always Rings Twice. Her one Academy Award nomination for Best Actress came in 1958's Peyton Place, but the Oscar went to Joanne Woodward in The Three Faces of Eve.
7. Carole Lombard: Even Boyfriend Clark Gable, the King of Hollywood, Couldn't Land Carole Lombard the Part
Like nearly every other actress in Hollywood, any Carole Lombard biography will tell you she longed to play Scarlett O'Hara. But she decided to try a different tack from her fellow actresses: rather than approach producer David O. Selznick, she sent actor Clark Gable a copy of the Gone With The Wind book, writing on the inside, "Let's do it! Carole."
The pair had starred together in 1932's No Man of Her Own, and they'd kept in touch. Gable took the gift as an invitation to hook up.
To make a long story short, Carole Lombard didn't get the part, and didn't even get asked to do a screen test. But in her eyes, she got the bigger prize: a torrid love affair soon ignited between the couple and in March 1939 the two were married in Kingman, Arizona.
Scarlett O'Hara could never tame Rhett Butler… but Carole Lombard did!
8. Paulette Goddard: Could Charlie Chaplin's Child Bride Convince America She Was Scarlett?
By all accounts, the role of Scarlett O'Hara would go to a favorite actress of Selznick: Paulette Goddard, the wife of silent screen comedian Charles Chaplin.
Selznick had anguished over who should get the coveted role, and by most accounts, had narrowed his choices down to two actresses: Tallulah Bankhead and Paulette Goddard.
But Hollywood studios had started including "morality clauses" in their contracts which presented Selznick with a big problem: Bankhead was an active lesbian in Tinseltown circles, and Goddard couldn't prove she was officially married to Chaplin. The pair claimed they were married aboard a ship on a cruise to the Far East in 1936, but had no documents to back them up. Any type of bad publicity could sink Selznick's "ship," and after agonizing over who to pick, Selznick finally made his Scarlett choice after filming on the movie had actually begun.
It would be a relatively unknown British actress by the name of Vivien Leigh. And her performance would be so convincing, she will win the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance.
After a two-year search, David O. Selznick finally found his Scarlett O'Hara with British actress Vivien Leigh, and the Gone With The Wind cast was complete.
(This original article was written by Tim Anderson and published on Reel Rundown)
It is commonly said that Amish don't like having their photos taken. "No photos please" signs are common in Amish communities. Most Amish today will not pose for a photograph. Considering it a violation of the Second Commandment, which prohibits the making of "graven images," the Amish believe any physical representation of themselves (whether a photograph, a painting, or film) promotes individualism and vanity, taking away from the values of community and humility by which they govern their lives.
Occasionally, Amish people did have their photos taken, as you can see with the couple in the first image who likely went to a studio for their portrait in 1875. But by the time photography became popular in America in the mid-19th century and photographers and researchers armed with cameras began appearing in Amish communities, most Amish objected to appearing in or posing for photographs entirely.
These images below were all created between 1875 and 1942.
The first Amish came to America from Europe in the early 1700s to participate in William Penn's "holy experiment" of religious tolerance. Most settlers landed in Pennsylvania, but later spread across the country. Here, European-born Amish immigrants Henry Stahly and Magdalena Ehrisman Stahly in Nappanee, IN in 1875. (Credit: Steven M. Nolt)
Prior to 1950, Amish and non-Amish (or English) youth attended public schools together. Here, you can see the public, one-room Millcreek School in Stormstown, PA, with Amish children playing in the yard. 1923. (Credit: Landis Valley Museum)
Since the mid-20th century, the Amish have developed their own private one- and two-room schools. Pictured here, the 1927 Millcreek School class photograph in Stormstown, PA. (Credit: Landis Valley Museum)
An English and Amish girl are tutored by their non-Amish teacher in 1938 in Lancaster County, PA. (Credit: Library of Congress)
From a 1938 National Geographic pictorial on the Pennsylvania Dutch, an Amish mother prepares her sons' lunchboxes with meat from their smokehouse, homemade bread, and last summer's fruit, which has been jarred and stored. (Credit: National Geographic Society, Corbis)
In this typical one-room public school in Lancaster County, PA, English, Mennonite and Amish children have recess in 1938. Their Mennonite teacher stands on the stoop. (Credit: National Geographic Society, Corbis)
Many Amish and non-Amish children attended school together. Note the two Amish girls on the left wearing traditional clothing. The caption beneath this photo, taken in 1940, says Mary S., Nancy N., BJ S., Irene M. and Dorothy K. were all students of Emmalie H. Hillegass. (Credit: Landis Valley Museum)
This horse-drawn John Deere plow came up for auction in Lancaster County, PA in March 1942. Most Amish farmers continue to use horse-drawn equipment in their fields, however since the mid-20th century some have started using gasoline engines to power the harvesting equipment. (Credit: US Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information, Library of Congress)
While single Amish men remain clean-shaven, once a man is married he will not shave his beard for the rest of his life. Women, too, do not cut their hair, but typically part it in the middle and pull it back in a bun. This practice has remained largely unchanged throughout the 20th century. (Credit: US Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information, Library of Congress)
In the first half of the 20th century, most Amish households did their own butchering, but gradually, many began to use the services of Amish butcher shops. Here, a man and woman prepare beef for canning in March 1942. (Credit: US Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information, Library of Congress)
This beardless unmarried man, not yet a member of the church, may have posed for this photograph while he was working in the barn. March, 1942. (Credit: US Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information, Library of Congress)
While Amish people cannot install telephones in their houses, they are permitted to use them in a public setting such as this public phone booth outside the general store in Barreville, PA. March 1942. (Credit: US Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information, Library of Congress)
Incredible Vintage Studio Portraits of California Young Gold-Rush Prospectors From the 1840s and 1850s
Young gold-rush prospectors stare down the camera in these striking daguerreotypes and tintypes of the 1940s and 1850s, from a time before California boomtowns became ghost towns.
Gold and Silver by Luce Lebart offers a contemporary insight into an exclusive archive of the California Gold Rush held by the Canadian Photography Institute of the National Gallery of Canada, and donated by the Archive of Modern Conflict. Young nineteenth-century argonauts look at the camera, defying all the conventions of portraiture. Everything in these pictures – their attitudes, their stares, their clothes – deviates from the usual representations associated with daguerreotype photography.
Portrait of a young man by Abraham Bogardus, c. 1852.
Portrait of an unidentified miner by Robert H. Vance, c. 1852.
Portrait of an unidentified man with mining tools by an unknown photographer, c. 1851.
Portrait of Henry Hobart Stiles by Charles F. Hamilton, c. 1854.
Portrait of R.S.M. Camden by an unknown photographer, c. 1850.
Portrait of Charles Edward Mitchell in a mining outfit by L.H. Purnell and Samuel Van Loan, c. 1853.
Portrait of Charles Edward Mitchell two years earlier by an unknown photographer, c. 1851.
Portrait of an unidentified man in a straw hat by an unknown photographer, c. 1850.
Portrait of an unidentified young man in a hat and suspenders by an unknown photographer, c. 1850.
Portrait of two unidentified young men drinking liquor by an unknown photographer, c. 1850.
Portrait of an unidentified man by Robert H. Vance, c. 1855.
Portrait of Moses Warren by an unknown photographer, c. 1851.
Portrait of David Hobby by an unknown photographer, c. 1850.
Portrait of two unidentified brothers holding hats by Robert H. Vance, c. 1850.
Portrait of an unidentified man by an unknown photographer, c. 1850.
Portrait of an unidentified man in a blue shirt by Robert H. Vance, c. 1850.
Portrait of an unidentified man by William Shew, c. 1851.
Portrait of Charles Bogert by Robert H. Vance, c. 1845.
Portrait of Ezra B. Tracy by an unknown photographer, c. 1852.
Portrait of an unidentified mule driver by an unknown photographer, c. 1850.
Portrait of an unidentified man in a striped shirt by an unknown photographer, c. 1848.
Portrait of an unidentified man in a blue shirt by Robert H. Vance, c. 1856.
Portrait of an unidentified man in work clothes by an unidentified photographer, c. 1850.
Portrait of an unidentified pair of prospectors by an unknown photographer, c. 1860.
Portrait of an unidentified miner by an unknown photographer.
Portrait of Moses Warren by an unknown photographer, c. 1850.
Portrait of an unidentified man by Robert H. Vance, c. 1850.
Horrors of War: 35 Incredible Photos That Show the Brutal Reality of 'the Battle of Stalingrad', 1942-43
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major confrontation of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of Stalingrad was also one of the bloodiest battles in history. The city of Stalingrad was of vital strategic importance to both the Nazi Germans and the Soviet Armies. The city with Stalin’s name on it made it also an irresistible target for Hitler of having the prestige of capturing it.
The fighting was marked by constant close quarters combat and, at first, direct assaults by air raids. The battle is seen as the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, with combined military and civilian casualties of nearly 2 million.
The Russians called it to be the greatest battle of their Great Patriotic War. Many historians called it the greatest battle of the entire conflict. It stopped the Nazi German advance into the Soviet Union and marked the turning of the tide of war in favor of the Allies.
The Battle of Stalingrad ended in disaster for Nazi Germany when Soviet forces defeated about 265,000 personnel of the Wehrmacht, their Axis allies, and Hiwis. Of the 107,000 Axis servicemen captured, only 6,000 survived captivity and returned home by 1955.
Below are incredible photos of that horrific battle.
German 6th Army soldiers marching to Stalingrad, 1942
T-34 in Stalingrad
Battles in the city streets, Stalingrad, November 1942
Commanding General Vasily Chuikov, known as 'The Man of Iron Will' or 'The Stone', Soviet commander during the Battle of Stalingrad
German soldier cleans his rifle in the break between battles at Stalingrad, autumn 1942
German soldiers in Spartanovka, in the outskirts of Stalingrad
German soldiers in urban combat at the Battle of Stalingrad
German squad seeks cover in preparation to advance, combat at the Red October Factory, Stalingrad, 1942
Red Army fighting position, Stalingrad, 1942
Soviet rockets being fired at German positions during the Battle of Stalingrad
Soviet soldiers battling in city streets, Stalingrad, November 1942
Soviet soldiers battling in city streets, Stalingrad, November 1942
Soviet troops fighting in the ruins of the factory 'Red October', Stalingrad, October 1942
Stalingrad, autumn 1942
Two Soviet soldiers evacuate a wounded comrade from a factory building
Wehrmacht soldiers eating roast chicken outside of Stalingrad, 1942
Wehrmacht soldiers in Stalingrad
Wehrmacht soldiers in Stalingrad
A Soviet soldier gives cigarettes to German POWs captured during the Battle of Stalingrad
Dead German soldiers after the Battle of Stalingrad, 1943
Frozen bodies of Germans, Stalingrad
Piles of dead German bodies outside of Stalingrad, Feburary 1943
Stalingrad after the war, 1943
Two German soldiers froze to death in Stalingrad
German Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, Major General Arthur Schmidt, and Paulus' adjutant Colonel Wilhelm Adam after their surrender, Stalingrad, 31 Jan 1943
German general Friedrich Paulus as a POW in 31 January 1943
German POWs, Stalingrad
German POWs, Stalingrad
Russian boys at Stalingrad with captured German machine guns, February 1943
16 Racist, Sexist and Dishonest Vintage Advertisements That Seem Shocking Today
These vintage advertisements are from Beyond Belief, a book by art collector and former advertising executive Charles Saatchi, which brings together the most shocking advertising campaigns of the last century. From racism and sexism to dodgy health claims, nothing was out of bounds for the real-life Mad Men.
“In the middle of the last century, marketing men had few qualms about creating brutally offensive advertisements...It proved a grimly amusing task to find so many examples that I could collect together; they provide a clear insight into the world of the ‘Mad Men’ generation and the consumers they were addressing. Although many of the advertisements selected are alarming they present an important portrait of society in the 1940s and ‘50s.” - Charles Saatchi.
Misogynistic, racist, unscientific, dishonest and just plain bizarre, these ads demonstrate how our attitudes towards women, race, tobacco, personal hygiene and drugs have changed over the years.
Love Cosmetics, 1975. This campaign used a sexualized image of a prepubescent girl, apparently forgetting that women were its target audience.
Van Heusen, 1952. ‘The world’s smartest shirts’ – and the world’s crudest racial stereotyping.
Broomsticks, 1967. The women in this bizarre game – Rosie, Carol or Eleanor – may be interchangeable, but only one brand of slacks will do.
Lucky Strike, 1930. To counter the health concerns around smoking, ad men simply enlisted their own men in white coats.
Elliott’s Paint, 1930s. Pears soap was sold as being so effective that black skin could be scrubbed clean. This advert for paint plumbs similar depths of offensiveness.
Iver Johnson firearms, 1904. This US weapons manufacturer makes some puzzling claims for a gun that can ‘shoot straight and kill’ while being ‘absolutely safe’.
Mebaral sedatives, 1950s. Tranquilisers were routinely used to pacify and sedate women; here, though, a stressed-out man is advised of the benefits of ‘daytime sedation’.
Panasonic hairdryer, 1972: even back then, cancer treatment and resulting hair loss was common enough to have made this unthinkable.
Meprospan, 1957: what every stressed-out mother at bath-time needs: to still be sedated by the pill she took when she first awoke.
Weyenberg Massagic shoes, Playboy, 1972.
Tipalet cigars, Young & Rubicam, Playboy, 1970.
Alcoa Aluminium, Fuller & Smith & Ross, 1953.
7-Up, J Walter Thompson, Saturday Evening Post, 1955.
Cocaine Tooth Drops (1885).
Chlorodent toothpaste, J Walter Thompson, 1953.
Mum deodorant, Doherty, Clifford & Sheffield, Screenland magazine, November 1945.
The 1970s Surfing Subculture Through Amazing Photos by Jeff Divine
Growing up in La Jolla , California, Jeff Divine began taking pictures of his fellow surfers in his hometown during the 1960s and got to know the original alternative sport before the mainstream media blew it up into the the commercial kingdom it has now come to be.
His work took him to a staff position in 1971 with Surfer magazine where he would begin the first of some 37 annual trips to the North Shore of Oahu, Hawaii and numerous worldwide trips to the best surfing destinations . He served as photo editor for Surfer and the Surfer's Journal for 35 years.
Divine has one of the largest archives of surf photography that exists from 1970-2009. And here are some of his work from the 1970s.
Black's Beach, La Jolla, San Diego, California, 1971
Contest, Huntington Beach, California, 1971
Contest, Huntington Beach, California, 1971
Laguna Beach, California, 1971
Laguna Canyon, California, 1971
Pipeline, Oahu, Hawaii, 1971
Pipeline, Oahu, Hawaii, 1971
Pipeline, Oahu, Hawaii, 1971
Rocky Point, Oahu, Hawaii, 1971
Sunset Beach, Oahu, Hawaii, 1971
Sunset Beach, Oahu, Hawaii, 1971
Windansea, La Jolla, San Diego, California, 1971
Black's Beach, La Jolla, San Diego, California, 1972
La Jolla Shores, California, 1972
La Jolla, California, 1972
Lower Trestles, San Clemente, California, 1972
Sunset Cliffs, Point Loma, San Diego, California, 1972
Wonderful Life of India in 1969 Through an Australian Traveler's Lens
In 1967, Bruce Thomas and Stuart Harper first met each other while working in geological mapping parties in outback Australia.
“We both separately had plans to drive overland from India to the United Kingdom, so we decided to join forces. Stuart had already purchased a vehicle for the journey, a 1961 model Fiat 600 Multipla which had cost just $175 (perhaps more than $2000 today). It was then extensively overhauled.”
“Ships travelling to India from Australia were rare in 1969 as the Six Day War in the Middle East had led to the closure of the Suez Canal in 1967. By booking 12 months in advance, we secured berths on the P&O cruise liner 'Oriana' which was sailing from Sydney to Colombo via Hong Kong and Singapore. We departed on 12 February 1969.”
Some 1800 photos (50 rolls) were taken on their journey, and here are 43 they shot when in India in 1969.
A street stall selling saris, Madurai
A semi-precious gemstone dealer shows his wares, Jaipur
A well trained elephant for heavy lifting, Kerala
A young girl cradles her younger sister
Camels on the street of Rajasthan
Canal in Kerala
Cantilever 'fishing machines' along the coast of Kerala
Craftsman preparing enamel inlaid brass plates, which are a specialty of Jaipur
Drivers of the ubiquitous auto rickshaw, Halebid
Elephant on the street of Kerala
Flower sellers by the roadside in Jaipur
Man dressed in colorful turbans and earrings for the celebration of Rama's birthday, Mandu
Man enjoying one of the simple pleasures of life, puffing on his chillum, Jaipur
Mother Ganga, the holy Ganges River
On the road in Rajasthan
Policeman on duty, Jaipur
Portrait of a fakir in Hassan
Portrait of a fine moustache man in Mandu
Portrait of an elegant young lady in Mandu
Portrait of an elegant young lady, with her brother in Mandu
In World War II, Boeing Built a Fake Rooftop Town to Hide Its Factory Beneath From Potential Air Strike by the Japanese
During World War II, a strange, house-filled neighborhood could be seen in the middle of an industrial area from the air. A close-up look would reveal that it was camouflage for Boeing's Plant No. 2, where thousands of B-17 bombers were produced.
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese submarines were spotted off the San Francisco Bay and near Santa Barbara in 1942. The West Coast was the next presumed target for the Japanese so the U.S. decided to hide its major wartime factories.
John Stewart Detlie, a Hollywood set designer, helped "hide" Boeing's Seattle plant using his Hollywood design techniques with this camouflage. The fake housing development covered nearly 26 acres with netting. Built almost entirely from plywood and cardboard - with trees made from chicken wire and painted burlap - the town looked convincing enough from the air to hide the factory from any bombers flying by. Factory workers took a series of secret tunnels through fake cafes and shops to get to the factory each morning.
On the roof of Boeing Plant 2, camouflage trees and structures were shorter than a person.
The faux neighborhood was designed to throw off possible air attacks.
Thousands of Boeing workers gather in front of Boeing Plant 2 for ceremonies marking the changeover from B-17 to B-29 production on April 10, 1945.
Suzette Lamoureaux and Vern Manion examine one of the miniature bungalows in the “Boeing Wonderland.”
Structures that look like cars from overhead are parked along a fake street.
A street sign plays off the fake neighborhood at the corner of “Synthetic Street” and “Burlap Boulevard.”
Trees were made of chicken wire and feathers.
People lounge on a fake lawn during a publicity shot on top of the camouflaged roof.
An aerial view of the camouflage on top of Boeing Plant 2 shows that the “streets” were aligned with real residential neighborhoods nearby.
Joyce Howe and behind her Susan Heidreich walking over the camouflaged Boeing Plant 2.
Boeing plant aerial photo taken from around 5000 feet. This was taken in either 1944 or 1945.
Boeing Plant 2. 1944 B-17G Flying Fortress.
B-17F production line, Boeing Plant 2, July 14 1942.
Long Hair Warriors: 30 Vintage Photographs of Female Viet Cong Soldiers in the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War still remains controversial and people on both sides suffered immense losses and clearly at least some of these pics are staged, but regardless of your feeling on the issue, these pictures provide a historical reminder of the strength of the women who fought alongside their male counterparts but are often not acknowledged and the harsh reality of wartime that didn’t discriminate by gender.