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The Commercial Credit System

BarnacleBob

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#1
[Reprinted from `Freedom League', Sept/Oct 1984]

When Congress borrows money on the credit of the United States, bonds are thus
legislated into existence and deposited as credit entries in Federal Reserve banks.
United States bonds, bills and notes constitute money as affirmed by the Supreme Court (Legal Tender Cases, 110 U.S. 421), and this money when deposited with theF ed becomes collateral from whence the Treasury may write checks against the creditt hus created in its account (12 USC 391).
For example, suppose Congress appropriates an expenditure of $1 billion. To financet he appropriation Congress creates the $1 billion worth of bonds out of thin air andd eposits it with the privately owned Federal Reserve System.
Upon receiving the bonds, the Fed credits $1 billion to the Treasury's checking account, holding the deposited bonds as collateral. When the United States deposits its bonds with the Federal Reserve System, private credit is extended to the
Treasury by the Fed. Under its power to borrow money, Congress is authorized by
the Constitution to contract debt, and whenever something is borrowed it must be
returned. When Congress spends the contracted private credit, each use of credit is
debt which must be returned to the lender or Fed. Since Congress authorizes the
expenditure of this private credit, the United States incurs the primary obligation to
return the borrowed credit, creating a National Debt which results when credit is not
returned.
However, if anyone else accepts this private credit and uses it to purchase goods
and services, the user voluntarily incurs the obligation requiring him to make a
return of income whereby a portion of the income is collected by the IRS and
delivered to the Federal Reserve bankers.
Actually the federal income tax imparts two separate obligations: the obligation to
file a return and the obligation to abide by the Internal Revenue Code. The
obligation to make a return of income for using private credit is recognized in law
as an irrecusable obligation, which according to 'Bouvier's Law Dictionary' (1914
ed.), is "a term used to indicate a certain class of contractual obligations
recognized by the law which are imposed upon a person without his consent and
without regard to any act of his own." This is distinguished from a recusable
obligation which, according to Bouvier, arises from a voluntary act by which one
incurs the obligation imposed by the operation of law.
The voluntary use of private credit is the condition precedent which imposes the
irrecusable obligation to file a tax return. If private credit is not used or rejected,
then the operation of law which imposes the irrecusable obligation lies dormant
and cannot apply.
In Brushaber v. Union Pacific RR Co., 240 U.S. 1 (1916) the Supreme Court affirmed
that the federal income tax is in the class of indirect taxes, which include duties and
excises. The personal income tax arises from a duty -- i.e., charge or fee -- which is
voluntarily incurred and subject to the rule of uniformity. A charge is a duty or
obligation, binding upon him who enters into it, which may be removed or taken away
by a discharge (performance): Bouvier, p. 459. Our federal personal income tax is not
really a tax in the ordinary sense of the word but rather a burden or obligation which
the taxpayer voluntarily assumes, and the burden of the tax falls upon those who
voluntarily use private credit. Simply stated the tax imposed is a charge or fee upon
the use of private credit where the amount of private credit used measures the
pecuniary obligation.
The personal income tax provision of the Internal Revenue Code is private law
rather than public law. "A private law is one which is confined to particular
individuals, associations, or corporations": 50 AmJur 12, p.28. In the instant case
the revenue code pertains to taxpayers. A private law can be enforced by a court of
competent jurisdiction when statutes for its enforcement are enacted: 20 AmJur 33,
pgs. 58, 59.
The distinction between public and private acts is not always sharply defined when
published statutes are printed in their final form: Case v. Kelly, 133 U.S. 21 (1890)
Statutes creating corporations are private acts: 20 AmJur 35, p. 60. In this
connection, the Federal Reserve Act is private law. Federal Reserve banks derive
their existence and corporate power from the Federal Reserve Act: Armano v.
Federal Reserve Bank 468 F.Supp 674 (1979). A private act may be published as a
public law when the general public is afforded the opportunity of participating in
the operation of the private law. The Internal Revenue Code is an example of
private law which does not exclude the voluntary participation of the general
public. Had the Internal Revenue Code been written as substantive public law, the
code would be repugnant to the Constitution, since no one could be compelled to file a
return and thereby become a witness against himself. Under the fifty titles listed on
the preface page of the United States Code, the Internal Revenue Code (26 USC) is
listed as having not been enacted as substantive public law, conceding that the
Internal Revenue Code is private law. Bouvier declares that private law "relates to
private matters which do not concern the public at large." It is the voluntary use of
private credit which imposes upon the user the quasi contractual or implied obligation
to make a return of income.
In Pollock v. Farmer's Loan & Trust Co., 158 U.S. 601 (1895) the Supreme Court had
declared the income tax of 1894 to be repugnant to the Constitution, holding that
taxation of rents, wages and salaries must conform to the rule of apportionment.
However, when this decision was rendered, there was no privately owned central bank
issuing private credit and currency but rather public money in the form of legal tender
notes and coins of the United States circulated. Public money is the lawful money of
the United States which the Constitution authorizes Congress to issue, conferring a
property right, whereas the private credit issued by the Fed is neither money nor
property, permitting the user an equitable interest but denying allodial title.
Today, we have two competing monetary systems. The Federal Reserve System
with its private credit and currency, and the public money system consisting of
legal tender United States notes and coins. One could use the public money system,
paying all bills with coins and United States notes (if the notes can be obtained), or
one could voluntarily use the private credit system and thereby incur the obligation to
make a return of income.
Under 26 USC 7609 the IRS has carte blanche authority to summon and investigate
bank records for the purpose of determining tax liabilities or discovering unknown
taxpayers: 'United States v. Berg' 636 F.2d 203 (1980).
If an investigation of bank records discloses an excess of $1000 in deposits in a single
year, the IRS may accept this as prima facie evidence that the account holder uses
private credit and is therefore a person obligated to make a return of income.
Anyone who uses private credit -- e.g., bank accounts, credit cards, mortgages,
etc. -- voluntarily plugs himself into the system and obligates himself to file. A
taxpayer is allowed to claim a $1,000 personal deduction when filing his return.
The average taxpayer in the course of a year uses United States coins in vending
machines, parking meters, small change, etc., and this public money must be
deducted when computing the charge for using private credit.
On June 5, 1933, the day of infamy arrived. Congress, on that date, enacted House
Joint Resolution (H.J.R.) 192, which provided that the people convert or turn in their
gold coins in exchange for Federal Reserve notes. Through the operation of law, H.J.R.
192 took us off the gold standard and placed us on the dollar standard where the dollar
could be manipulated by private interests for their self-serving benefit. By this single
act the people and their wealth were delivered to the bankers. When gold coinage
was thus pulled out of circulation, large denomination Federal Reserve notes were
issued to fill the void. As a consequence the public money supply in circulation was
greatly diminished, and the debt-laden private credit of the Fed gained supremacy.
This action made private individuals who had been previously exempt from federal
income taxes now liable for them, since the general public began consuming and
using large amounts of private credit. Notice all the case law prior to 1933 which
affirms that income is a profit or gain which arises from a government granted
privilege. After 1933, however, the case law no longer emphatically declares that
income is exclusively corporate profit or that it arises from a privilege.
So, what changed? Two years after H.J.R. 192, Congress passed the Social Security Act,
which the Supreme Court upheld as a valid act imposing a valid income tax: 'Charles C.
Steward Mach. Co. v. Davis' 301 U.S. 548 (1937).
It is no accident that the United States is without a dollar unit coin. In recent years the
Eisenhower dollar coin received widespread acceptance, but the Treasury minted them
in limited number which encouraged hoarding. This same fate befell the Kennedy half
dollars, which circulated as silver sandwiched clads between 1965-1969 and were
hoarded for their intrinsic value and not spent.
Next came the Susan B. Anthony dollar, an awkward coin which was instantly rejected
as planned. The remaining unit is the privately issued Federal Reserve note unit dollar
with no viable competitors.
Back in 1935 the Fed had persuaded the Treasury to discontinue minting silver
dollars because the public preferred them over dollar bills. That the public money
system has become awkward, discouraging its use, is no accident. It was planned that
way.
A major purpose behind the 16th Amendment was to give Congress authority to
enforce private law collections of revenue. Congress had the plenary power to
collect income taxes arising from government granted privileges long before the
16th Amendment was ratified, and the amendment was unnecessary, except to
give Congress the added power to enforce collections under private law: i.e.,
income from whatever source. So, the Fed got its amendment and its private
income tax, which is a banker's dream but a nightmare for everyone else. Through
the combined operation of the Fed and H.J.R. 192, the United States pays
exorbitant interest whenever it uses its own money deposited with the Fed, and
the people pay outrageous income taxes for the privilege of living and working in
their own country, robbed of their wealth and separated from their rights, laboring
under a tax system written by a cabal of loan shark bankers and rubber stamped by
a spineless Congress.
Congress has the power to abolish the Federal Reserve System and thus destroy the
private credit system. However, the people have it within their power to strip the
Fed of its powers, rescind private credit and get the bankers to pay off the National
Debt should Congress fail to act. The key to all this is 12 USC 411, which declares
that Federal Reserve notes shall be redeemed in lawful money at any Federal
Reserve bank. Lawful money is defined as all the coins, notes, bills, bonds and
securities of the United States: 'Julliard v. Greenman' 110 U.S. 421, 448 (1884);
whereas public money is the lawful money declared by Congress as a legal tender
for debts (31 USC 5103); 524 F.2d 629 (1974). Anyone can present Federal Reserve
notes to any Federal Reserve bank and demand redemption in public money -- i.e.,
legal tender United States notes and coins. A Federal Reserve note is a fixed
obligation or evidence of indebtedness which pledges redemption (12 USC 411) in
public money to the note holder.
The Fed maintains a ready supply of United States notes in hundred dollar
denominations for redemption purposes should it be required, and coins are
available to satisfy claims for smaller amounts.
However, should the general public decide to redeem large amounts of private credit
for public money, a financial melt-down within the Fed would quickly occur. The
process works like this. Suppose $1,000 in Federal Reserve notes are presented for
redemption in public money. To raise $1,000 in public money the Fed must surrender
U.S. Bonds in that amount to the Treasury in exchange for the public money demanded
(assuming that the Fed had no public money on hand). In so doing $1,000 of the
National Debt would be paid off by the Fed and thus cancelled. Can you imagine the
result if large amounts of Federal Reserve notes were redeemed on a regular, ongoing
basis? Private credit would be withdrawn from circulation and replaced with public
money, and with each turning of the screw the Fed would be obliged to pay off more
of the National Debt. Should the Fed refuse to redeem its notes in public money, then
the fiction that private credit is used voluntarily would become unsustainable. If the
use of private credit becomes compulsory, then the obligation to make a return of
income is voided. If the Fed is under no obligation to redeem its notes, then no one
has an obligation to make a return of income. It is that simple!
Federal Reserve notes are not money and cannot be tendered when money is
demanded: 105 So. 305 (1925). Moreover, the Ninth Circuit rejected the argument
that a $50 Federal Reserve note be redeemed in gold or silver coin after specie
coinage had been rescinded but upheld the right of the note holder to redeem his
note in current public money (31 USC 392; rev., 5103): 524 F.2d 629 (1974); 12
USC 411. !!!
It would be advantageous to close out all bank accounts, acquire a home safe, settle
all debts in cash with public money and use U.S. postal money orders for remittances.
Whenever a check is received, present it to the bank of issue and demand cash in
public money.
This will place banks in a vulnerable position, forcing them to draw off their assets.
Through their insatiable greed, bankers have over extended, making banks quite
illiquid. Should the people suddenly demand public money for their deposits and for
checks received, many banks will collapse and be foreclosed by those demanding
public money.

Banks by their very nature are citadels of usury and sin and the most patriotic
service one could perform is to obligate bankers to redeem private credit.
When the first Federal Reserve note is presented to the Fed for redemption, the
process of ousting the private credit system will commence and will not end until
the Fed and the banking system nurtured by it collapse. Coins comprise less than
five percent of the currency, and current law limits the amount of United States
notes in circulation to $300 million (31 USC 5115). The private credit system is
exceedingly over extended compared with the supply of public money, and a small
minority working in concert can easily collapse the private credit system and oust
the Fed by demanding redemption of private credit. If the Fed disappeared
tomorrow, income taxes on wages and salaries would vanish with it.
Moreover, the States are precluded from taxing United States notes: 4 Wheat. 316.
According to Bouvier, public money is the money which Congress can tax for public
purposes mandated by the Constitution. Private credit when collected in revenue can
fund programs and be spent for purposes not cognizable by the Constitution.
We have in effect two competing governments: the United States Government and
the Federal Government.
The first is the government of the people, whereas the Federal Government is
founded upon private law and funded by private credit. What we really have is
private government. Federal agencies and activities funded by the private credit
system include Social Security, bail out loans to bankers via the IMF, bail out loans
to Chrysler, loans to students, FDIC, FBI, supporting the U.N., foreign aid, funding
undeclared wars, etc., all of which would be unsustainable if funded by taxes
raised pursuant to the Constitution. The personal income tax is not a true tax but
rather an obligation or burden which is voluntarily assumed, since revenue is raised
through voluntary contributions and can be spent for purposes unknown to the
Constitution.
Notice how the IRS declares in its publications that everyone is expected to
contribute his fair share.
True taxes must be spent for public purposes which the Constitution recognizes.
Taxation for the purpose of giving or loaning money to private business enterprises
and individuals is illegal: 15 AmRep 39; Cooley, 'Prin. Const. Law', ch. IV. Revenue
derived from the federal income tax goes into a private slush fund raised from
voluntary contributions, and Congress is not restricted by the Constitution when
spending or disbursing the proceeds from this private fund. It is incorrect to say
that the personal federal income tax is unconstitutional, since the tax code is
private law and resides outside the Constitution.

The Internal Revenue Code is non-constitutional because it enforces an obligation
which is voluntarily incurred through an act of the individual who binds himself.
Fighting the Internal Revenue Code on constitutional grounds is wasted energy. The
way to bring it all down is to attack the Federal Reserve System and its banking
cohorts by demanding that private credit be redeemed, or by convincing Congress
to abolish the Fed.
Never forget that private credit is funding the destruction of our country.
 

arminius

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#2
[Reprinted from ‘Freedom League’, Sept/Oct 1984]

By demanding non-negotiable Federal Reserve Notes at
the time of cashing any paycheck, you’re avoiding the
taxable event:

Deposited for credit on account
or exchanged for non-negotiable
Federal Reserve notes of face value
:True Name: dba LEGAL NAME

Or:
Redeemed in lawful money
Pursuant to 12 USC 411
:True Name: dba LEGAL NAME

You’re avoiding the activity – or the verb – of
endorsement. [Actually, I believe it is a restrictive
endorsement because it ‘restricts’ how the bank may
negotiate the instrument.]
Negotiable instruments can be exchanged for other and
presumably higher forms of currency. So a non-
negotiable Federal Reserve Note is a way of saying that
you’re getting United States Notes instead.

This is domestic emergency currency, instead of foreign
emergency currency (Federal Reserve Notes).

The problem with this non-endorsement as far as the bank
is concerned, is that the bearer of the check is not
pledging any credit; any private credit behind the check.
[The Story of Money – Federal Reserve Bank of New
York] The only bond behind the check is the presumed
goods or services, and the full amount has to come out of
the bank account of the drafter – whoever drafted the
check. This means that the bank cannot do any fractional
lending; for every $10 that’s put into the vault, they can’t
lend out $90 more. And so this is what it means in the
article by it diminishes the private credit. You’re actually
redeeming the private credit from the Federal Reserve and
putting it into public money form – non-negotiable
Federal Reserve Notes. They still look like Federal
Reserve Notes...
To summarize and paraphrase, the opening paragraphs of
the article are a little misleading to say that the $1 billion
in bond money is created out of thin air. It’s created,
actually out of a suppositional wagering scheme or a
tontine that everybody will be fooled into pledging
themselves as national debt.

David Merrill

Statutory citations:

12 USC §391 Federal reserve banks as Government
depositaries and fiscal agents
The moneys held in the general fund of the Treasury,
except the 5 per centum fund for the redemption of
outstanding national-bank notes may, upon the direction
of the Secretary of the Treasury, be deposited in Federal
reserve banks, which banks, when required by the
Secretary of the Treasury, shall act as fiscal agents of the
United States; and the revenues of the Government or any
part thereof may be deposited in such banks, and
disbursements may be made by checks drawn against
such deposits.

12 USC §411
Federal reserve notes, to be issued at the discretion of the
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for the
purpose of making advances to Federal reserve banks
through the Federal reserve agents as hereinafter set forth
and for no other purpose, are authorized. The said notes
shall be obligations of the United States and shall be
receivable by all national and member banks and Federal
reserve banks and for all taxes, customs, and other public
dues. They shall be redeemed in lawful money on demand
at the Treasury Department of the United States, in the
city of Washington, District of Columbia, or at any
Federal Reserve bank.

31 USC §5103
United States coins and currency (including Federal
reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal reserve
banks and national banks) are legal tender for all debts,
public charges, taxes, and dues. Foreign gold or silver
coins are not legal tender for debts.
[Notice that there is no reference to ‘private’ obligations]

31 USC §5115
(a) The Secretary of the Treasury may issue United States
currency notes. The notes—
(1) are payable to bearer; and
(2) shall be in a form and in denominations of at least one
dollar that the Secretary prescribes.
(b) The amount of United States currency notes
outstanding and in circulation—
(1) may not be more than $300,000,000; and
(2) may not be held or used for a reserve.

http://www.archive.org/details/gov.frb.ny.comic.money
 

madhu

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#3
any pictures of US NOTES and how can one get their hands on them.
 

arminius

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#4
Today, we have two competing monetary systems. The Federal Reserve System with its private credit and currency, and the public money system consisting of legal tender United States notes and coins. One could use the public money system, paying all bills with coins and United States notes (if the notes can be obtained), or one could voluntarily use the private credit system and thereby incur the obligation to make a return of income. Under 26 USC 7609 the IRS has carte blanche authority to summon and investigate bank records for the purpose of determining tax liabilities or discovering unknown taxpayers: 'United States v. Berg' 636 F.2d 203 (1980). If an investigation of bank records discloses an excess of $1000 in deposits in a single year, the IRS may accept this as prima facie evidence that the account holder uses private credit and is therefore a person obligated to make a return of income. Anyone who uses private credit -- e.g., bank accounts, credit cards, mortgages, etc. -- voluntarily plugs himself into the system and obligates himself to file. A taxpayer is allowed to claim a $1000 personal deduction when filing his return. The average taxpayer in the course of a year uses United States coins in vending machines, parking meters, small change, etc., and this public money must be deducted when computing the charge for using private credit.
 

arminius

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#5
any pictures of US NOTES and how can one get their hands on them.
They are antiques these days, and sold in the market as such.

I heard a story about there being 12 or so pallets of USNotes that they move back and forth among the 12 Federal Reserve Banks so they can state that USNs are still circulating, LOL.
 

arminius

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#6
FRN vs USN copy.jpg
 

chieftain

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#7
e.g., bank accounts, credit cards, mortgages, etc. -- voluntarily plugs himself into the system and obligates himself to file.
The problem is that it isn't actually voluntary, it's more akin to coercion considering no new US Notes have been printed since 1971.

Question. What happens if one has $1000 in US notes and deposits them into a bank account?
 

the_shootist

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#8
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#9
None of it is true.

Kennedy did not issue billions of U.S. notes.
There are 330million U.S. notes in existence ---they have to be by law.
http://www.yamaguchy.com/library/uregina/act1868.html
U.S. notes are not circulated, they are sitting in the vaults of the Treasury.
Jackson wasn't even President in 1828.
Lincoln was a life-time friend of bankers and the central bank concept. It was the bankers who issued U.S. notes in 1862.
Please work up the courage and read the short history of greenbacks:
http://name789.wordpress.com/

Today (2020-2021) the U.S. government is issuing interest-free money --lot of good it does.
 

arminius

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#10
None of the above is true. Why should anyone believe in your propaganda? Forget history, believe your lies about us notes, which is ignorant enough to make us believe that us notes that include both frns and usds are issued interest free. One of them is. Are you part of the bankster lobby here? Interest free money today, what bs, why the irs must really love you.

Prove it isn't true.
 

Buck

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#12
i possess some USN, United States Notes and if i showed them to you, you'd agree, they've been circulated