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'Traditional masculinity' deemed 'harmful' by American Psychological Association

JayDubya

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'Traditional masculinity' deemed 'harmful' by American Psychological Association


https://www.boston25news.com/news/t...-american-psychological-association/903599150

A new 36-page report from the American Psychological Association spotlights the organization’s first official warning against what some call toxic masculinity.

The document, titled “APA Guidelines for the Psychological Practice with Boys and Men” was featured in the January issue of its magazine, Monitor on Psychology. Its aim is to help providers with male patients “despite social forces that can harm mental health.”


Developed by several experts between 2005-2018, the guidelines are aspirational “statements that suggest or recommend specific professional behavior, endeavor, or conduct for psychologists” and differ from standards, which are considered “mandatory and may be accompanied by an enforcement mechanism,” according to the report.

One of its primary guidelines warns against the “masculinity ideology.”

Traditional masculinity, as the APA defines it, refers to masculinity cognitions “that have held sway over large segments of the population, including: anti-femininity, achievement, eschewal of the appearance of weakness, and adventure, risk, and violence.” These behaviors are often influenced by social, cultural and contextual norms, whether that’s socialization by friends, imitating parent behavior or adopting media portrayals.

Researchers say conforming to such traditional masculinity may limit males’ psychological development, negatively influence mental health and result in gender role conflict, all of which have been addressed in previous research. For example, studies have shown boys are disproportionately more likely to have learning difficulties and behavior problems in school — and men, overrepresented in prisons, are more likely than women to commit violent crimes or be a victim of violent crime.

The ideology has been linked to physical health problems as well, including cardiovascular issues, substance abuse and early mortality, not to mention general quality-of-life issues. A groundbreaking World Health Organization study in 2017 found exposure to rigid gender norms can be established in children by age 10 or 11 and increases boys’ chance of depression and suicide. Overall, males are four times more likely to die from suicide than females.

Still, many men do not seek help when they need it and if they do, they have a hard time finding gender-sensitive treatment.

“When trying to understand the complex role of masculinity in the lives of diverse boys and men, it is critical to acknowledge that gender is a non-binary construct that is distinct from, although interrelated to, sexual orientation,” researchers note. “Historically, traditional masculinity comes with a heteronormative assumption, which “may ostracize some gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming individuals from an inherent sense of male identity (APA, 2015), leading to feeling pressured to adopt dominant masculine roles to reduce feelings of minority stress.”

Men from marginalized groups, including ethnic minorities, are also often targets of additional stereotypes and are commonly labeled “aggressive” by society even if they engage in positive behaviors.

Psychologists, the APA recommends, should seek to not only understand the intricacies of masculinity and its context, but also encourage community figures (teachers, religious leaders, sports figures, parents) to become educated as well. This may require psychologists to examine “their own assumptions of, and countertransference reactions toward, boys, men, and masculinity.”

Here are the 10 guidelines included in the report, which will expire in 2028, according to APA policy:

  1. Psychologists strive to recognize that masculinities are constructed based on social, cultural, and contextual norms.
  2. Psychologists strive to recognize that boys and men integrate multiple aspects to their social identities across the lifespan.
  3. Psychologists understand the impact of power, privilege, and sexism on the development of boys and men and on their relationships with others.
  4. Psychologists strive to develop a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence the interpersonal relationships of boys and men.
  5. Psychologists strive to encourage positive father involvement and healthy family relationships.
  6. Psychologists strive to support educational efforts that are responsive to the needs of boys and men.
  7. Psychologists strive to reduce the high rates of problems boys and men face and act out in their lives such as aggression, violence, substance abuse, and suicide.
  8. Psychologists strive to help boys and men engage in health-related behaviors.
  9. Psychologists strive to build and promote gender-sensitive psychological services.
  10. Psychologists understand and strive to change institutional, cultural, and systemic problems that affect boys and men through advocacy, prevention and education.

Read the full report at apa.org.
 

Joseph

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#3
'Traditional masculinity' deemed 'harmful' by American Psychological Association


https://www.boston25news.com/news/t...-american-psychological-association/903599150

A new 36-page report from the American Psychological Association spotlights the organization’s first official warning against what some call toxic masculinity.

The document, titled “APA Guidelines for the Psychological Practice with Boys and Men” was featured in the January issue of its magazine, Monitor on Psychology. Its aim is to help providers with male patients “despite social forces that can harm mental health.”


Developed by several experts between 2005-2018, the guidelines are aspirational “statements that suggest or recommend specific professional behavior, endeavor, or conduct for psychologists” and differ from standards, which are considered “mandatory and may be accompanied by an enforcement mechanism,” according to the report.

One of its primary guidelines warns against the “masculinity ideology.”

Traditional masculinity, as the APA defines it, refers to masculinity cognitions “that have held sway over large segments of the population, including: anti-femininity, achievement, eschewal of the appearance of weakness, and adventure, risk, and violence.” These behaviors are often influenced by social, cultural and contextual norms, whether that’s socialization by friends, imitating parent behavior or adopting media portrayals.

Researchers say conforming to such traditional masculinity may limit males’ psychological development, negatively influence mental health and result in gender role conflict, all of which have been addressed in previous research. For example, studies have shown boys are disproportionately more likely to have learning difficulties and behavior problems in school — and men, overrepresented in prisons, are more likely than women to commit violent crimes or be a victim of violent crime.

The ideology has been linked to physical health problems as well, including cardiovascular issues, substance abuse and early mortality, not to mention general quality-of-life issues. A groundbreaking World Health Organization study in 2017 found exposure to rigid gender norms can be established in children by age 10 or 11 and increases boys’ chance of depression and suicide. Overall, males are four times more likely to die from suicide than females.

Still, many men do not seek help when they need it and if they do, they have a hard time finding gender-sensitive treatment.

“When trying to understand the complex role of masculinity in the lives of diverse boys and men, it is critical to acknowledge that gender is a non-binary construct that is distinct from, although interrelated to, sexual orientation,” researchers note. “Historically, traditional masculinity comes with a heteronormative assumption, which “may ostracize some gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming individuals from an inherent sense of male identity (APA, 2015), leading to feeling pressured to adopt dominant masculine roles to reduce feelings of minority stress.”

Men from marginalized groups, including ethnic minorities, are also often targets of additional stereotypes and are commonly labeled “aggressive” by society even if they engage in positive behaviors.

Psychologists, the APA recommends, should seek to not only understand the intricacies of masculinity and its context, but also encourage community figures (teachers, religious leaders, sports figures, parents) to become educated as well. This may require psychologists to examine “their own assumptions of, and countertransference reactions toward, boys, men, and masculinity.”

Here are the 10 guidelines included in the report, which will expire in 2028, according to APA policy:

  1. Psychologists strive to recognize that masculinities are constructed based on social, cultural, and contextual norms.
  2. Psychologists strive to recognize that boys and men integrate multiple aspects to their social identities across the lifespan.
  3. Psychologists understand the impact of power, privilege, and sexism on the development of boys and men and on their relationships with others.
  4. Psychologists strive to develop a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence the interpersonal relationships of boys and men.
  5. Psychologists strive to encourage positive father involvement and healthy family relationships.
  6. Psychologists strive to support educational efforts that are responsive to the needs of boys and men.
  7. Psychologists strive to reduce the high rates of problems boys and men face and act out in their lives such as aggression, violence, substance abuse, and suicide.
  8. Psychologists strive to help boys and men engage in health-related behaviors.
  9. Psychologists strive to build and promote gender-sensitive psychological services.
  10. Psychologists understand and strive to change institutional, cultural, and systemic problems that affect boys and men through advocacy, prevention and education.

Read the full report at apa.org.

I think this is what psychologists are striving for in new age males.


Denver Antifa.jpg
 

chomper

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Those Nancies above will then sue someone that their limp wrists broke when they tried to hit a real man.
 

Alton

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Gentlemen, time to break out the armored jock straps! War has been declared on your junk! APA = American Pussy Association which has just officially declared WAR on mankind!
 

Mujahideen

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For example, studies have shown boys are disproportionately more likely to have learning difficulties and behavior problems in school — and men, overrepresented in prisons, are more likely than women to commit violent crimes or be a victim of violent crime.
Probably because human males are not designed by god to sit at a desk for hours a day and be watched by people who they know can not lay a finger on them.
 
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michael59

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So what, fags, transgenders rock now, this has become one sick country
I know but I am still laughing. IDK, I just did a 3.5 or four hour search for a rotational drive as I need the parts exsploder diagram and I din't write the number of the branden winch down. And, I started at about midnight and finished at 3:30 or 4 when I found out that geni aka Terex changed to swing drive and I'm like f now I do need the number off the winch all because I f'ed up......and, and

And, then I read an article like what's above and I realize I might have f'ed up but I ain't as fed up as the APA.
 

hoarder

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Rollie Free

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Its like all liberals agendas, it sounds good but the wording used and the actual desire deem it a lie.

Men shouldn't beat up women or each other, or treat each other badly. That's the lead in but that's not the intent.
 

Uncle

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Why are all of them seemingly wanting to grow a beard? To match their moma's or wimpy popa's?

Head-butts all around.

Golden Regards
Uncle
 

arminius

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Television is the greatest tool for propagation of social engineering ever invented. And it works. Just look at the morons out there in the political system today.

As to the APA, it's getting obvious the greedy fucks who runs that organization are a group of folks that want to engineer more social problems so they can make more moolah to solve the problems (definition of pathology) they create, while totally fucking up the rest of society.

Nice world we live in, no...

icons of psychology.jpg
 
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arminius

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Revisiting the Myth of Mental Illness and Thomas Szasz
Avoiding the pitfalls of social control and radical libertarianism
Now only an expert can deal with the problem because half the problem is seeing the problem.
- Laurie Anderson

In the animal kingdom, the rule is, eat or be eaten; in the human kingdom, define or be defined.
- Thomas Szasz

In Christopher Moore’s novel, The Lust Lizard of Melancholy Cove, we watch the cartoonish results of a town going off their antidepressants. When a local housewife commits suicide, the town psychiatrist becomes upset, believing that her tranquilizing medications might be insufficient in preventing such tragedies. She blackmails the local pharmacist into dispensing placebos instead of Prozac. Cold weather approaches and the town gets the blues. They start singing the blues. They also get their sex drive back, which coincides with the arrival of an aphrodisiacal sea monster. It’s all quite absurd and strange. Though his intent is more comedic than moral, it does push us to wonder about our reliance on professionals to manage our personal troubles and the influence of psychiatric experts in our lives.

If there ever was a critic of our enchantment with psychiatry, it was Thomas Szasz, MD, who died this past week at the age of 92. His 1961 book, The Myth of Mental Illness, provided the philosophical basis for the antipsychiatry and patient advocate movements that began in the 1960s and have flourished ever since. Szasz (pronounced “zoz”) argued that a disease model was a category error when it comes to accounting for “problems in living.” The New York psychiatrist, who was born in Budapest and immigrated to the United States in 1938, was originally trained as a psychoanalyst and was on the faculty of SUNY Upstate until retirement. He shunned the medical model of psychiatry, which he saw as inherently coercive. He was an early critic of psychiatry’s former disease model of homosexuality. He argued vigorously against the use of involuntary hospitalizations, the insanity defense, and the psychiatric control of psychotropic medications. His influence has permeated both clinical psychiatry and psychology, leaving the profession with a stronger emphasis on social justice and a legacy of psychiatric skepticism.

One of Szasz’s basic arguments is that mental illness is a myth. He was highly critical of the so-called medical model for understanding human struggles and difficulties. He saw the uses of diagnostic systems (such as the DSM) as wrongly implying the presence of actual disease. Furthermore, he saw such efforts as medicalizing morality and the typical dilemmas and struggles of human life.

To be sure, Szasz was not without his critics. His central view that mental illness is a myth has been dismissed, if not outright rejected, by the American Medical Association, America Psychiatric Association, and National Institute of Mental Health. Even Dr. Allen Frances, himself a critic of the modern diagnostic approach in psychiatry, has said that Szasz “goes too far.”

Still, the critique offered by Szasz deserves careful reflection, even if some of his views seem radical. We will soon witness a new, fifth revision to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). It is widely assumed that the DSM-5 represents an advancement in knowledge that will further our understanding in treating psychopathology. The experts have said we should not be concerned. In fact, we should applaud because we have come so far. There is less stigma associated with having a mental illness. Treatment works and suffering is reduced. And so on.

And what could possibly be controversial? At the most basic level, the American Psychiatric Association maintains a kind of monopoly on what constitutes a mental illness. As pointed out recently by Allen Francis, M.D., chair of the previous DSM-IV, the new manual has become a victim of its own success. It has become the chief arbiter of who is ill and who is not, and such decisions affect everything from access to school services to disability payments and insurance eligibility. The benevolent view would be that there will be more access to treatment for everyone. A more cynical view suggests an increase in pathologizing normal experience (e.g., converting shyness into social anxiety disorder) . With the addition of many new diagnoses and a broadening of diagnostic criteria for existing diagnoses, the DSM-5 could shape notions of normality and illness in ways that cannot possibly be anticipated. What is clear is that Its continued dominance as psychiatry’s sacra scriptura ensures a continued deference to experts when we are troubled.

If Szasz would have us question our fidelity to experts, psychoanalysis gives us a language for talking about why we might be drawn to experts in the first place. Freud reminds us that there is something intrinsically unmanageable about being human. We struggle to bear what seems unbearable. Our turning to experts is a self-cure for what we cannot tolerate or explain. But is it easier to bear if it can be explained and potentially alleviated by experts? If one is experiencing a persistent and stubborn shyness, is it usefully viewed as social anxiety disorder–a treatable mental illness (complete with psychotherapies and medications)? Thus, we thrust our fears about what we can’t seem to bear into the arms of experts.

If Freud would have us be critical of what we assume to be true in our nature, William James would push us to decide on the usefulness of what we’ve come up with. Would it be more or less helpful to think of one’s introverted nature and social fearfulness as a mental health condition? If we think of severe shyness as a treatable illness, am I more likely to seek some solutions rather than others? What are the side effects of a medical metaphor?

It would be hard to argue against the idea that we are better off with the kind of compassionate, non-discriminatory, science-based approaches we enjoy for conditions like autism, cognitive impairments, and severe depression. We no longer live in a demon-haunted world. We would also have a hard time imagining the kind of world that J.G. Ballard described in his futuristic short story, “The Insane Ones,” where psychiatrists and psychologists have been outlawed in a kind of libertarian utopia (under the fictitious Mental Freedom legislation) that Szasz might relish. “Discharging their self-hate and anxiety onto a convenient scapegoat, the new rulers, and the great majority electing them, outlawed all forms of psychic control, from the innocent market survey to lobotomy...the mentally ill were on their own, spared pity and consideration, made to pay to the hilt for their failings.”

There is surely a middle path–somewhere between Moore’s parody and Ballard's libertarianism. Our conceptions about what is normal or sane involve a much bigger project than the DSM, and perhaps we will see the DSM take its place alongside other relics we no longer need (lobotomies come to mind). Similarly, our ideas about self-improvement surely go beyond the language and treatment methods of psychiatry. While appreciating evidence-based practices in psychotherapy and medical advances in psychopharmacology, we need to be alert to a full range of avenues for self-help. Szasz would also remind us not to “mistake medicine for magic.”


© 2012 Bruce C. Poulsen, All Rights Reserved

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/...ting-the-myth-mental-illness-and-thomas-szasz

psych drugs.jpg
 
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