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Why Palladium? It is the metal of the future.....

RichG

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#1
I have been a big fan of palladium for years now. It has very unique properties .... especially in the 'green' areas of water purification ( desalination ), and in the making of hydrogen ( fuel of the future). Here is just a snap shot of what you 'should' know, and is 'not' being openly talked about by the people in-the-know. Gauging the value of palladium to the future of 'catalytic converts' is a big mistake.


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleListURL&_method=list&_ArticleListID=1604939223&_st=18&_sort=r&sisrterm=palladium&searchtype=a&originPage=rslt_list&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=206aeb3b217c5ca2bc12e91aa63544d7

Water is the future .... palladium and silver come to my mind. Filter and purification. :smokin:
 

RichG

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#2
http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China_Business/MA04Cb01.html

Thirsty China turns to the sea

By Mitch Moxley

BEIJING - While China faces grave water shortages, researchers at institutions across the country are working on new water-saving and desalination technologies that they hope can alleviate the crisis in the years to come.

Despite billions of dollars spent on damming rivers, building reservoirs and digging deeper wells, farmers in the north toil on parched land while hundreds of cities across the country face water shortages and deteriorating water quality.

Beijing's water shortage will soon reach 200 million to 300 million cubic meters, according to state media reports, as the city awaits the completion of the US$62 billion South-North Water Transfer


Project, which will displace some 330,000 people.

The World Bank has warned that the country's water crisis could spark unrest, pitting rich against poor and urban against rural. Without serious changes in water use, tens of millions of Chinese will become environmental refugees in the next decade, the bank argues.

Meanwhile, countries downriver from the growing superpower - including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam - argue that China's aggressive dam building in the Mekong River is robbing their citizens of water.

For some, the answer lies in desalination technology. China has been engaged in desalination research since 1958, and in 1975 it began research on medium- and large-scale distillation devices. In 1986, it finished construction of a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination device.

Tianjin, a coastal port city about 150 kilometers from Beijing, has become a national leader in desalination technology. In fact, the city has refused water from the south and instead focused on desalination efforts. According to the local government, the nearby Dagang Xinquan Seawater Desalination Project is the "largest seawater desalination plant in Asia."

"Indeed, the municipality has been developing desalination technologies since the year 2000, and this has been regarded as a more likely source of water to meet the water supply needs of the municipality," said a report by Probe International, an independent environmental advocacy group.

Wang Shichang, director of the Desalination and Membrane Technology Center at Tianjin University, says researchers in China are currently working on more than 200 desalination projects, receiving support from the Ministry of Science and Technology and the National Science Foundation of China.

The center that Wang leads introduced the first multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation devices, which distills water through several chambers, each operating at progressively lower pressures. The vapor generated by flashing is condensed at each stage and turned into fresh water. The technology uses 25% less "feed water" than other desalination devices, Wang says.

The country's desalination capacity reached nearly 200,000 tonnes per day in 2008, up from 30,000 tonnes in 2005. According to the government's current development plan, the figure is expected to reach 800,000 to one million tonnes by the end of this year.

Wang says support is still not enough. He notes that the gap between China's innovation capacity and development and manufacturing capabilities compared with those of foreign countries remains vast. He says greater state subsidies and access to bank loans are needed to bridge that divide.

While Wang works toward creating new usable water, Tian Juncang, a professor at Ningxia University, is trying to reduce water wasted in agriculture.

Tian's work focuses on using plastic mulch in conjunction with drip irrigation to suppress weeds, maximize the effectiveness of fertilizer and conserve water in crop production. Plastic mulch and drip irrigation can reduce the amount of water used in irrigation process by up to 50%, Tian says.

China's agriculture industry currently uses 70% of all the country's water, and much of it goes to waste, he says. Drip irrigation under plastic mulch can reduce the industry's use to 50%.

"China's agricultural industry faces grave challenges," Tian said. By implementing new technology, "the current amount of water can support double the farming land."

The government has moved to promote water conservation. In 2007, it issued it's 11th five-year plan for water conservation, proposing detailed targets, including increasing the agricultural water conservation rate to 50% from 45%, between 2005 and 2010.

But Tian says water conservation must be a systematic effort with the support and cooperation of industry and society as a whole. Efforts to conserve water also require increased funding from the state, improved laws and regulations and more advanced and better-managed facilities, Tian says.

"Agricultural water conservation efforts have been strengthened in recent years," he says, "but it's still not enough."
 

DrillAndFill

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#3
Weird. I was thinking of starting such a thread - something like "Palladium Possibilities - Not Just Cold Fusion" - as my way of shilling for this element.

I don't know the whole list of technologies which could soon incorporate palladium, but I know it's a long one.

Thanks for the de-sal links.
 

Fullpower

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#4
The adsorption of chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solution by ethylenediamine-modified cross-linked magnetic chitosan resin (EMCMCR) was studied in a batch adsorption system. Chromium (VI) removal is pH dependent and the optimum adsorption was observed at pH 2.0. The adsorption rate was extremely fast and the equilibrium was established within 6–10 min. The adsorption data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir and Temkin model. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained from the Langmuir model are 51.813 mg g−1, 48.780 mg g−1 and 45.872 mg g−1 at 293, 303 and 313 K, respectively. The adsorption process could be described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion study revealed that film diffusion might be involved in the present case. Thermodynamic parameters revealed the feasibility, spontaneity and exothermic nature of adsorption. The sorbents were successfully regenerated using 0.1 N NaOH solutions.

And of course, the key passage:
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A novel method for producing high permeance, Pd/Cu alloy membranes in the fcc phase is presented. The deposition of sub-micron layers of Cu by electroless plating and Pd by the galvanic displacement of Cu on top of an already dense Pd membrane enabled an fcc Pd/Cu alloy to be present on just the surface of the membrane. The result was a Pd/Cu/Pd tri-layer that when annealed formed the sulfur resistant fcc phase without the hydrogen permeance decrease associated with fcc Pd/Cu alloys. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to study the effect of stirring on the kinetics of both the plating and displacement baths. Bath agitation rates of 400 rpm were found sufficient to deposit uniform sub-micron layers at high deposition rates by minimizing the diffusional mass transfer resistance within the solutions. XRD studies showed that the tri-layer formed the sulfur tolerant fcc phase within 36 hours of annealing at 450 °C in H2. A tri-layer Pd/Cu/Pd alloy membrane was fabricated by depositing 0.4 μm of Cu with a bath agitation speed of 400 rpm on an already dense Pd membrane and depositng 0.15 μm of Pd through the displacement of Cu with a bath agitation speed of 400 rpm. The total membrane thickness was 19.0 μm. The permeance at 450 °C was 22.9 m3/m2*bar0.5*h which was 93% of the permeance of a pure Pd foil of the same thickness. Previous Pd/Cu fcc alloy membranes resulted in permeances with roughly 50–60% of the permeance of pure Pd foils of the same thicknesses. The membrane tested in this work performed similarly to pure Pd membranes due to thin layer of the fcc Pd/Cu alloy.
 
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Voodoo

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#6
Well, just going to bump this thread as I was looking through some old threads to see what was happening. Surprisingly, there were lots of threads on Pd and we've seen how well that has done.